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  • Value

    Value 1 November 2022 Dr. Moria Levy Previous Article Next Article At first, we were taught that value equals benefits. We translated it into functions we provide in a product, service, or relationship. Years passed, and the equation changed, adding the cost to the value. Something is valuable to me, depending on what I have to pay, whether money, time, or any other effort. It didn't change the basic idea, however, it added a level of cleverness. Yes, efforts matter to the value itself and cannot be separated. These years, again, the equation is refined. Instead of speaking of benefits and what we provide, one should think about outcomes solely from the user or customer's perspective- what's in it for them. What do they get? That is the base for design thinking, digital transformation, and almost every new updated, relevant business model. I want to claim that there is a place for another level of refinement. When we think about the outcome, let us divide it into two, separating the functional and emotional outcomes. Why? Because the emotional outcome turns out to be more essential and significant, turning, many times to be a differentiator between the leading solution and all others. Such may do with how easy it is to consume a service, how independent the customer feels, how satisfied or he is when exposing the knowledge we offer, and how innovative it makes her feel using it. The emotional outcome is relevant to KM activities, as well as to any other product or service. So from today, when you define and suggest any solution and think about the value, think about a triangle-based value model: cost, functional outcome, and emotional outcome. One more step to leveraged KM solutions. This post was initially published in LinkedIn

  • Mindset - Book review

    Mindset - Book review 1 March 2020 Dr. Moria Levy Previous Article Next Article "Mindset: Changing the Way You Think to Fulfill Your Potential" is a book authored by Dr. Carol Dweck, a world-renowned expert in developmental psychology. It was first published in 2012 and later republished in 2017. The book's central theme revolves around our mindset and how it influences our capacity to develop and grow. The book is organized into the following sections: 1. An Evolving Mindset 2. Content Worlds: Sport, Leadership, Love, Education 3. Concept Implementation - Change Management Throughout the book, Dr. Carol Dweck delves into our potential for learning and personal growth as individuals, employees, or leaders. It explores whether our ability to change ultimately determines our success in self-improvement. The key takeaway is that our mindset plays a crucial role in our ability to succeed and evolve. Embracing a growth mindset is a choice that is available to anyone. So, why not choose to adopt it? I highly recommend this book to all. An Evolving Mindset: A developing mindset refers to our perception of ourselves, acknowledging that we can learn, grow, and change, ultimately strengthening and expanding our abilities. The essential question is not whether we have this potential but how to harness and nurture it. This perspective contrasts another, perhaps more widely accepted worldview known as a fixed mindset, where abilities are believed to be solely influenced by genetics. However, the truth is that our environment and our efforts also play significant roles in shaping our capabilities. The path to influencing our potential involves several key elements: 1. Dedication and persistence: Diligent effort and investment in ourselves. 2. Strategies: Applying focused efforts in the right direction to avoid wasted energy. 3. Clarity of purpose: Setting our sights on the path we wish to pursue. 4. Receiving assistance: Recognizing that seeking help from others can be beneficial. It's crucial to note that an evolving mindset implies that we can only achieve some things. It acknowledges the existence of inherent potential that can be expanded significantly through continuous growth and development. In reality, most people need to fit neatly into the categories of fixed or developing mindset; instead, our mindset can vary depending on factors such as domain expertise, context, and overall tendencies. The good news is that we can cultivate a developing mindset, which is crucial for success. Knowledge and recommendations alone are insufficient; we need an evolving mindset to lead ourselves effectively. Individuals with a developing mindset exhibit several positive traits: 1. Realistic self-perception: They accurately assess their abilities and performance. 2. Resilience to criticism: Critique is seen as an opportunity for growth and improvement. 3. Willingness to embrace challenges and hard work. 4. Pursuit of long-term success over immediate perfection. 5. Less preoccupied with seeking revenge when wronged. 6. Embrace a non-zero-sum outlook on the world, recognizing that success for one doesn't entail failure for another. 7. Value the investment and effort, even if the desired outcome takes time. The developing mindset fosters success by enhancing learning, pushing the boundaries of one's abilities, and achieving desired outcomes. Importantly, Carol Dweck does not claim that mindset is the sole factor influencing success; it operates with other elements. However, an evolving mindset does have a significant impact on the behaviors and traits described above. Individuals with a developing mindset take ownership of their improvement journey and, as a result, experience tremendous success. While some individuals may naturally possess talent and abilities without much effort, others with less inherent talent can still achieve great heights through an evolving mindset combined with investment, focus, and strategic approaches. Genes undoubtedly play a role but do not determine our destiny alone. With the right mindset and determination, we can unlock our full potential and achieve remarkable growth and accomplishments. Content Worlds: Sport In the world of sports, Dweck highlights various examples of athletes with fixed and developing mindsets, demonstrating how those with a developing mindset outperformed others, even if they started with similar or lesser skills. Three key athletes who embraced an evolving mindset are particularly noteworthy: 1. Michael Jordan: Despite a weak start and rejection from multiple teams in his youth, Jordan emphasized the power of his mental fortitude and thinking abilities, eventually surpassing his physical prowess. His relentless focus on improvement led him to achieve physical perfection and remarkable success. 2. Babe Ruth: Ruth believed in training and honing his skills, showcasing discipline and dedication. His investment in personal growth paid off, and he achieved significant success. 3. Wilma Rudolph (World Champion and Olympic Gold Medalist in Short Distance Running): Born prematurely and afflicted with illness and polio during childhood, Rudolph turned to training as a means of recovery and development. What do these exceptional athletes share in common? · The ability to surmount setbacks and derive motivation from challenges. · Assuming responsibility for their progress toward success. · Identifying, adopting, and implementing successful strategies. · Recognizing success in giving their best effort, embracing learning, and continuous improvement. · Acknowledging that success is a collaborative effort involving various contributors to their achievements. · Maintaining the willingness to persevere and continue acting with determination, even in the face of success, to sustain their position of excellence. Leadership: In both the business world and the realm of sports, there exists a significant opportunity for emerging leaders who do not solely rely on charisma or innate talent. Dweck presents various less successful examples, illustrating how leaders with fixed mindsets and ego-centric attitudes can lead to detrimental outcomes, such as the infamous case of Enron. On the contrary, she introduces three successful leaders who operated with a developing mindset and firmly believed in their ability to grow, develop their companies, and nurture their employees: 1. Jack Welch (GE): Renowned for transforming a struggling company into one of the most successful enterprises of its time, Jack Welch attributes his leadership approach to an early experience in his engineering career where he learned from a mistake and embraced the importance of faith in people and learning. Welch focused on hiring employees not solely based on talent but on their passion, dreams, and willingness to grow. He dedicated his energy to development and growth, fostering a collaborative journey with teams as partners in success alongside managers. 2. Lou Gerstner (IBM): Like Welch, Gerstner took over a severely troubled company and placed his faith in learning, people, and innovation. He broke the norm of his time by promoting open communication within the organization. Gerstner's key implementations included teamwork and customer focus, leading IBM to reclaim its position as a global leader in computing. 3. Anne Mulcahy (Xerox): Similar to the previous leaders, Mulcahy faced a company in dire straits and focused extensively on learning, resilience, and employee development, even during necessary cutbacks. Critical Insights for the Business World: • Organizations often claim to value collaborative thinking, but they may expect conformity to managerial review. Real collaborative thinking must be encouraged. • Workplace recognition should prioritize efforts, processes, and improvement rather than mere compliments on successful results. This approach aligns with a developing mindset, fostering growth and learning. • An evolving mindset contributes to personal success and benefits the entire organization. It fosters teamwork and encourages creative problem-solving throughout the organization. • Managers are advised to focus on skills and learning potential, integrating development (beyond just talent) into organizational values, providing feedback that promotes learning and long-term success, and leading by example to serve as a source of learning for employees. Organizations that prioritize employee development and learning create an environment where employees: · Trust the organization more. · Feel empowered to take risks. · Are perceived by their managers as collaborators in achieving success. Love and Relationships: Within romantic partnerships, the concept of a developing mindset becomes more intricate. In this equation, two partners may find themselves at different stages of developing their thinking, contemplating each other's growth, and considering the nature of their relationship. Nevertheless, specific characteristics hold for individuals with a developing mindset in relationships: · They are more inclined to forgive and less likely to seek revenge. · They are better equipped to move on after a relationship has ended. · They believe in the possibility of personal growth, the development of their partner, and the relationship itself. Consequently, they are more willing to work through issues rather than end the relationship abruptly. Critical insights for couples in the context of mindset perception: · Effective communication is essential since partners cannot read each other's minds, regardless of how long they've been together—open channels of communication foster development and improvement within the relationship. · Many relationship problems can be overcome with the right mindset, emphasizing the importance of growth and understanding. · Avoid competition, whether overt or covert, between partners. Healthy relationships thrive on mutual support and collaboration. · A successful relationship involves supporting a partner's individual development when they express the desire to grow. Similar considerations extend to ordinary friendships, where the perception of a developing mindset remains relevant. Much of what applies to romantic relationships can also be used to friendships – is the friend supportive? Is there a sense of competition? The essence of a true friendship lies in supporting each other's growth and development. In all types of relationships, cultivating a developing mindset can lead to greater understanding, forgiveness, and support for one another. Embracing this mindset enables individuals to grow together, face challenges, and build meaningful connections that endure the tests of time. Education: Education encompasses parents educating their children, teachers guiding their students, and coaches seeking to foster the growth of those they coach. The following are critical recommendations for promoting a developing mindset in educational settings: · Focus on offering compliments for the outcome and the effort, improvement, and connection between the two. While other compliments may provide short-term benefits, they might have adverse effects in the long run. · Embrace constructive criticism and treat failures as valuable opportunities for learning and improvement. Avoid ignoring or dismissing failures as the student's sole responsibility or an inconsequential event. · Strive to avoid being judgmental and punitive, as such behaviors hinder a person's development. · Place emphasis not only on achieving the best or ideal results but also on the process of continuous improvement itself. · Set high standards while fostering a nurturing and supportive atmosphere. · Require diligent work and provide appropriate guidance to facilitate progress. · When children or students resist cooperation, take the time to explain in depth why and how the educational approach contributes to their growth and benefits them. · Encourage parents, teachers, and educators to adopt a developing mindset and instill it in the children they educate. For coaches: · Provide training that encompasses a variety of skills, support, and a focus on a developing mindset. · Dedicate significant effort and preparation to coaching activities. · Take a long-term perspective when coaching, looking beyond immediate results. · View failures and setbacks as opportunities for learning and personal growth. By embracing these recommendations, educators and coaches can create environments that encourage continuous learning, personal development, and the pursuit of excellence. They can help individuals thrive, overcome challenges, and reach their full potential. Implementation of the Concept – Change Management: An evolving mindset is not a fixed attribute; it fluctuates based on context and circumstances. Even if we adopt such a concept, regressing and returning to a fixed perception is easy. Like any significant change, adopting an evolving mindset is a journey that requires commitment and effort. Dweck outlines a route that can guide individuals toward their goals: 1. Familiarize yourself with the concept of an evolving mindset. 2. Gain knowledge of learning strategies (unfortunately, specific details are not provided by M.L.). 3. Engage in coaching practices (Dweck conducts workshops on the subject). Here are the steps to progress along this journey: · Acknowledge that each of us possesses a fixed mindset in certain areas. Identify a topic in which we are aware of this improved perception. · Analyze the triggers and factors that lead to fixed perception in the specific context. · Create a fictional character that embodies the fixed mindset. Discuss this character and its implications with a friend. · Educate and coach this fictional character: When you recognize behaviors stemming from the fixed mindset, explain how the character should have acted with a developing mindset. · Gradually improve your behavior, following the guidance provided to the fictional character. The journey toward an evolving mindset requires consistent practice and self-reflection. It is normal to encounter setbacks, but personal growth and change are attainable with persistence and dedication. In conclusion, "Mindset: Changing the Way You Think to Fulfill Your Potential" is a book that merits revisiting, reading, and reflecting on multiple occasions. Its insights can impact one's life and development positively.

  • Enhancing Collaboration Through the Power of Storytelling

    Enhancing Collaboration Through the Power of Storytelling 16 May 2023 Dr. Moria Levy Previous Article Next Article Twenty years ago, incorporating storytelling into the business context seemed unlikely. However, today we recognize the effectiveness of using stories to convey messages, foster empathy, and enhance collaboration. The importance of stories in collaboration became evident during today's session led by Arthur Shelley in the Knowledge Management Global Network course. My Key Takeaways: Building Trust and Connection: Stories not only convey messages but also create an atmosphere of trust and connection. By utilizing storytelling, collaboration objectives can be approached collectively and effectively. Technological Enhancements: In the new collaboration era, technology can be harnessed to craft compelling stories. Tools like Miro enable leveraging of collective wisdom to shape messages and plots. Chat GPT can provide insights and suggestions for enhancing such a script. Platforms like Pictory can transform the script into engaging videos, creating a more impactful and enjoyable collaboration experience. Embracing storytelling as a tool for collaboration can yield powerful outcomes. Utilizing technology and adopting storytelling techniques can create an environment that encourages collaboration, enhances understanding, and strengthens relationships. And as a bonus, it does it all faster, so we have more time for pizza, friends, or even if we really want- for working more on other issues.

  • Key success factors of collaboration

    Key success factors of collaboration 1 February 2023 Previous Article Next Article What makes collaboration a success? The Knowledge Management Global Network collaboration course, session 2, focused on the four key success factors of collaboration: people, culture, gravitation, and productivity. Some tips as to these four main KSF of collaboration: Respect one another; be open-minded and patient, especially with those different from yourself. Build trust. When collaborating- remember that to err is human; however: 1- experiencing collaboration makes it easier to do it right from time to time, so don’t give up, and 2-learn from your mistakes, and the errors will turn into a success. Understand that successful collaboration requires investment: time, thought, action, and passion. Because almost always, we will have more opportunities to collaborate than time- carefully choose your KM collaboration initiatives! Use digital collaborative tools to leverage collaboration. And my favorite one for today- Use outcomes of the collaboration initiatives (the knowledge assets) as input for successive collaboration initiatives. It will make collaboration not only much more efficient rather much more effective. This post was initially published in LinkedIn

  • Story Thinking - Book review

    Story Thinking - Book review 1 September 2021 Dr. Moria Levy Previous Article Next Article "Story Thinking: Transforming Organizations for the Fourth Industrial Revolution" is a captivating book authored by John Lewis, a social organizational psychologist specializing in knowledge management. Published in 2019, the book presents Lewis' teachings and introduces his developed model, Story Thinking. This model is designed to foster problem-solving processes, change management, learning, leadership, and development within organizations. The book offers intriguing insights and various applications of the Story Thinking model. The book covers the following topics: - The Story Thinking Model - Development of the organization based on the Story Thinking model - Changing perceptions of thinking - Continuous improvement - Learning through feedback - Specialization - Leadership - Policy formulation Initially, I had some reservations about reading the book due to the term "story," which led me to expect a different topic. However, knowing the author personally, I decided to give it a chance. To my pleasant surprise, the book exceeded my expectations and provided a holistic perspective on organizations and their behavior. It delves into various applications, including the education sector, while summarizing key concepts and omitting examples. I highly recommend investing time in reading this book. P.S. The book includes an appendix discussing the implications of the Story Thinking model on 30 recognized management models. The Story Thinking Model The concept behind the Story Thinking Model revolves around the resemblance between a story and our thought processes. Just as a story unfolds with a life situation, develops a plot that we explore, resolve, and eventually return to an improved routine, our thinking follows a similar progression. The model consists of six stages: 1. Automation: This stage marks the beginning and end of the cycle, representing the work routine. 2. Disruption: It encompasses unexpected events or opportunities that deviate from the norm. 3. Inquiry: Asking pertinent questions becomes crucial during this stage, enabling effective discovery and guiding action. 4. Ideas: This stage involves exploring different courses of action and posing "what if" questions to stimulate innovative thinking. It culminates in identifying a desired direction and developing an action plan. 5. Expectations: Progress is made from a conceptual action plan to tangible deliverables and solutions. 6. Confirmation: The solution is tested to assess its effectiveness in meeting the identified need. Sometimes, this stage prompts a revisit to expectations, ideas, or further exploration. Ultimately, the cycle concludes by returning to an enhanced routine. It is worth considering that in life, there are instances where the lower semicircle of the cycle is fulfilled—automation, disruption, and confirmation enable a return to the status quo without significant change. The key lies in striking a balance between these two types of progress, aligning with the dual systems described by Kahneman in his book "Thinking, Fast and Slow" (System 1 - Lower Semicircle; System 2 - Full Circle). This summary captures the essence of the book. - M.L. Development of the organization based on the Story Thinking model Changing perceptions of thinking Upon closer examination of the Story Thinking model, it becomes evident that there are three distinct categories of actions: 1. Reactivity: This category encompasses automation and interference. In these situations, individuals do not initiate actions but instead react to circumstances that arise. 2. Questioning: Inquiry and ideas are the actions associated with this category. Questions are posed to understand and analyze the disorder, opportunity, or situation or propose potential guidelines. 3. Reflections: Expectations and confirmation are the primary actions within this category. Here, the focus lies on examining the direction of movement and finding a suitable solution. Lewis introduces a common organizational concept in which individuals perceive actions through the binary lens of being either an employee or a non-employee. However, based on the model and these action categories, Lewis proposes expanding the concept to encompass three possibilities: • Works: This corresponds to the stages of confirmation and automation. • Can work: This pertains to the stages of ideas and expectations. • Will not work: This applies to the stages of interference and investigation. The semantics employed in this context plays a crucial role. "Can work" represents a mental state that Lewis argues is achievable. It allows for confidence in embracing changes and motivating the organization, moving beyond the constraints of traditional "employee" situations. Similarly, "will not work" diverges from the conventional notion of "not working." The underlying idea behind this shift lies in acknowledging that even if certain situations continue to function effectively, we must recognize that they will not remain viable indefinitely. They are no longer suitable for our needs, and it becomes our responsibility to initiate the necessary change. Another intriguing point emphasized by Lewis is the inherent tension between the opposing pairs within the model: affirmation-inquiry, automation-ideas, and disruption-expectations. Each team contrasts the present reality and potential future reality. Maintaining a healthy emotional tension allows us to acknowledge the truthfulness of the present while actively seeking a more promising truth for the future through the complementary phase. Continuous improvement The proposed methodological implementation of the continuous improvement process is based on the model described above and consists of the following steps: 1. Identification of opportunities (interference): Lewis introduces ten problem prototypes that, when addressed effectively, can be transformed into opportunities. These prototypes encompass various challenges such as emergencies, risks, downsizing in business, audits, and more. Each problem is presented with its corresponding potential for opportunity. 2. Gaps analysis (investigation): Lewis suggests several comprehensive gap analysis approaches. These approaches include: a) Maintaining a positive perspective on the given situation, even when faced with problems, and viewing them as opportunities for improvement. b) Conducting a gap analysis that considers a combination of causes and factors rather than solely focusing on a single primary reason. c) Incorporating a benchmark-based outlook from others into your aspirations. 3. Solution prediction (ideas): Lewis provides a tool for implementing solutions by examining the components and connections between them in this phase. The objective is to explore how these components can be implemented and combined to achieve the desired result and make a significant leap forward. 4. Solution development (expectations): Lewis offers a step-by-step approach to advance solution development from the conceptual stage to production. It is important to note that solutions are cyclical, each serving as an intermediate step toward the next improvement. 5. Evaluation of truthfulness (confirmation): At the confirmation stage, where we believe that the developed solution works, Lewis advises being mindful of both types of errors: instances where we perceive a problem that doesn't exist and cases in which we assume everything is functioning smoothly while an underlying issue remains hidden. Additionally, Lewis suggests considering which stage should be revisited (ignored, expectations, ideas, or questioned) if confirmation challenges our initial beliefs. 6. Maintenance of the existing (automation): Lewis presents a model for maintaining and enhancing existing skills through six phases. These phases begin with eliminating elements that are no longer required, followed by the automation of operations, simplification, strengthening motivation, providing support, offering assistance, training, and education. By following these steps, organizations can implement continuous improvement practices and foster ongoing growth and development. Learning through feedback Learning through feedback is an integral part of the continuous improvement process. It operates in parallel with the confirmation phase of the story thinking model, serving as a reverse measurement along the model's axis. Feedback, in its expanded concept known as quad-loop learning, encompasses four distinct levels: 1. Feedback Compatibility with the existing situation: This level of feedback focuses on ensuring compatibility and alignment with existing processes. It addresses whether the current approach is practical and asks, "Isn't that so?" Considerations include behaviors, coding practices, discipline, potential distractions, emotional factors, and verifiable facts. 2. Constructive Feedback: This level of feedback aims to update and refine expectations. It answers the question, "How can we improve?" It encompasses actions, project beginnings, efforts, beliefs, guidance, and other relevant factors contributing to constructive progress. 3. Inventive Feedback: At this level, feedback stimulates new ideas and fosters creative thinking. It seeks to explore alternative approaches and asks, "Why not try something different?" This feedback involves challenging assumptions, encouraging creativity, designing innovative solutions, establishing effective governance frameworks, and engaging in transformative activities. 4. Perceptual Feedback: The fourth level of feedback prompts a re-evaluation of situations and encourages a fresh perspective. It poses the question, "For what purpose?" This feedback involves awakening new insights, nurturing curiosity, expanding exposure to diverse viewpoints, identifying patterns, and exploring previously unnoticed connections. These four levels of feedback contribute to the learning process by providing valuable insights and perspectives for re-evaluating existing practices and strategies. They encourage continuous improvement by fostering adaptability, innovation, and a willingness to explore new possibilities. Specialization In the context of feedback, the organization divides its time between on-the-job learning, which involves compatibility and constructive feedback, and dedicated learning, which requires pausing or temporarily halting work to explore new directions through inventive and perceptual feedback. Striking the right balance between work productivity and learning and creative and conceptual development is a crucial challenge for any organization. Lewis introduces a developmental model comprising four levels: novice, expert, pioneer, and thought leader. Initially, many individuals aspire to become experts, and achieving this level is a significant accomplishment. It is possible to progress and become an expert while maintaining productivity on the job. However, to leap pioneering in the field, it becomes necessary to pause, reflect on existing knowledge, and take a step back to progress and develop in new ways. This establishment of a new position and subsequent adoption by others can occur while actively working, facilitating a seamless learning transition without compromising productivity and fostering inventive development. Lewis depicts this developmental journey using the analogy of an S-shape and proposes two sub-models (refer to the book for the accompanying image). The sweeping model represents a gradual and steady progression. In contrast, the narrow model showcases instances where newcomers to the organization, armed with fresh perspectives, quickly challenge existing norms and propel the organization forward by asking insightful questions. (photo from the book): Within each quadrant of the model, specific types of learning occur: 1. The Novice: Learning predominantly takes place in the lower half of the story thinking cycle, focusing on acquiring existing knowledge within the organization. 2. The Expert: Learning encompasses information from the lower half of the cycle and extends to include the entire story thinking cycle, particularly in problem-solving. 3. The Pioneer: Learning occurs in the lower half of the cycle and incorporates learning from the entire process, viewing each disruption as an opportunity for growth. 4. The Thought Leader: This level integrates all learning methods, incorporating diverse approaches and perspectives. By understanding and embracing these levels of specialization, organizations can cultivate a culture of continuous learning and development, enabling individuals to progress and contribute to innovative advancements. Leadership Leading a learning organization is a significant responsibility that requires balancing direct learning and learning through discourse, knowledge acquisition, and personal development. It's essential to recognize that deepening understanding and influencing others are separate abilities that vary in success among individuals. Within organizations, various types of learning take place, including after-action reviews (AAR), confrontations, team meetings, persuasion, education, facilitation, discussions, collaborations, and dialogues. These forms of learning are distinct and serve different purposes - AARs and confrontations focus on certainty, while team meetings and conversations foster curiosity. Knowledge management plays a crucial role in fostering learning within organizations. Its effectiveness varies depending on the stage of the Story Thinking model it pertains to: 1. Automation: Business constitution tools, workflow tools, and dashboards are utilized. 2. Disruption: Tools for risk and decision management are employed. 3. Investigation: Discovery systems are leveraged. 4. Ideas: Conceptual and collaborative tools are used. 5. Expectations: Project management tools are employed. 6. Confirmation: Knowledge Systems (Answers) are implemented. Lewis suggests using Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) as cultural indicators to enhance further the development of a learning culture within the organization. These metrics cover various dimensions: 1. Automation: Organizational values, productivity, and customer focus. 2. Disruption: Stability, prioritization, and proactivity. 3. Inquiry: Analysis, objectivity, and curiosity. 4. Ideas: Creativity, planning, and practicality. 5. Expectations: Commitment, process, and timely delivery of deliverables. 6. Confirmation: Results, learning, and trust. By focusing on these dimensions and aligning them with organizational goals, leaders can effectively cultivate a culture of continuous learning and drive the success of the learning organization. Policy formulation Policy formulation is a crucial aspect of organizational activities, providing the guiding principles that direct decision-making and actions. The process of policy formulation involves the following steps: 1. Transparency: To enhance policy formulation, Lewis introduces the "Option Outline" tool, which functions similarly to decision trees. This tool focuses on relevant branches and chosen alternatives at each stage. It promotes transparency by displaying all available options and guiding further exploration. Organizing related documents within this model makes policy development more organized and accessible. 2. Collaborativeness: Collaboration plays a vital role in policy development. Lewis dedicates an entire chapter to emphasizing its importance. A good policy possesses three complementary qualities that may seem contradictory: 1. Simplicity: The policy should be easily understood. 2. Complexity: It should address the intricacies and complexities of the subject matter. 3. Elegance: The policy should be refined and well-crafted. Simplicity and elegance are associated with automation, while complexity stimulates the generation of ideas. While Lewis primarily focuses on government policies as the basis for creating new laws, these concepts also apply to organizational policies. It is essential to consider this broader context. In conclusion, the book presents numerous ideas and a cohesive framework. Each theory holds its significance, and together they form a comprehensive foundation. I highly recommend reading, digesting, and revisiting the book to explore how these concepts can be applied. It is an endeavor that will undoubtedly prove worthwhile.

  • ROM is delighted to introduce our new knowledge base

    ROM is delighted to introduce our new knowledge base Previous Item Next Item A collection of book reviews centered on management and knowledge management. We invite you to explore our first 10 book reviews, with more to be added shortly: Link

  • Digital Ecosystem

    Digital Ecosystem 1 March 2017 David Rozental Previous Article Next Article In the highly technologically advanced society of the early 20th century, hunger as a widespread phenomenon was replaced by an obesity epidemic. Similarly, modern organizations have shifted in recent years from a lack of communication channels for transmitting messages and knowledge to workers- to an environment which features many channels. This shift led in turn to an overflow of knowledge and data at the workers' expense. It is therefore understandably vital that when one manages multiple channels and platforms, a coherent policy and smart operation should be provided in order to efficiently manage messages, knowledge and information via a variety of channels minus resource multiplication and the aforementioned overflow which harm efficiency and contribute to workers' conduct. Lately, the term ‘digital ecosystem’ is constantly brought up when searching for a solution for efficient managing of multiple digital channels. Well, what exactly is a digital ecosystem? Is it a system or an array? What must be done in order to implement this approach in organizations? The term 'ecosystem' originates in the field of biology and refers to a complex life system including the various details, groups, organizations, forces, practices and approaches from which it is comprised. The ecosystem is a multilayered reality generated by interactions between a large number of systems comprised of sub-systems and details. When used in business context, the term refers to an environment related to a product or technology. This environment includes the suppliers, marketers, clients and service providers (consultants, installers) and even the waste disposal company related to the product and technology. As we all know from first-hand, digital enhancement means that every physical environment is paired with a complementary digital system. The digital ecosystem is an arena which includes all digital channels, both classic (computer, website, portal and email) and innovative (social media, mobile and video), their interaction and the mutual benefit they provide for all. Although the term is 'ecosystem’, the digital ecosystem is not a knowledge and information system. The ecosystem is a well-planned array of all digital channels utilized in order to reach a shared goal: actualizing business goals while creating adjusted relationships with the target audience. Typical components of an ecosystem include a portal or website, a newsletter environment, a video channel, IM channel (WhatsApp, SMS, etc.), a cellular application, etc. The idea behind this approach is that planned and integrated management of multiple channels ensures saving on resources, uniform messages as well as a customized message transmission method, all while reducing overflow and eliminating redundant overlaps. In short, the term might be long and complex but its implementation can lead to shorter and simpler work processes.

  • Noise - Book review

    Noise - Book review 1 September 2023 Dr. Moria Levy Previous Article Next Article The book "Noise: A Flaw in Human Judgment," authored in 2021 by Nobel Prize Winner for Economics Daniel Kahneman in collaboration with Olivia Siboni and Cass Sunstein, delves into a phenomenon of greater significance than commonly perceived: errors in human judgment caused by "noise." Noise pertains to unexpected disparities in decisions made by individuals in professional contexts, including judges, doctors, appraisers, managers, recruiters, and social workers involved in recommending child custody arrangements during separations. Generally, we assume that our judgment errors fall within the scope of "normal variation." If a noticeable deviation occurs, we will investigate it to comprehend its underlying causes. However, the pivotal point is that our perception of the realistic norm often holds substantial importance. This becomes apparent only when meticulously examining a vast dataset of judgments from a statistical perspective. The book covers the following topics: · Basis: What constitutes noise in human judgment? · Reasons: What are the origins of noise, and how does it manifest? · Snapshot: How can an organization appraise the presence of noise? · Enhancement: Tools for refining human judgment. This summary encapsulates key facets and inevitably cannot encompass the entire breadth and depth of the original work. Notably, this summary doesn't highlight nuances like the distinction between predictive and evaluative judgments, individual decision-making, clinical assessments, and more. The selected topics aim to simplify the presentation of the book's core concepts. Like Kahneman's prior works, this book imparts profoundly valuable insights that should motivate organizations to assess and enhance their operational methodologies, starting today. Basis: What constitutes noise in human judgment? When decisions are made, two scenarios are possible: The decision is correct. The judgment contains errors. When expressing opinions, it is acceptable and beneficial to encounter a diversity of viewpoints that reflect people's values, attitudes, perceptions, and preferences. However, this book needs to focus on those aspects. It centers on professional judgments—such as a doctor's diagnosis or a judge's sentencing—where we anticipate a combination of accuracy (correct decisions) and a degree of uniformity or at least reasonable consistency in the outcomes. Errors in professional judgments can be broadly categorized into two primary types: Errors originate from cognitive biases embedded in our minds (e.g., the anchoring effect—where initial information heavily influences us). These biases lead to similar products, yet detecting them can prove elusive. Identifying these errors becomes challenging when biases cause everyone to veer in the same direction. Errors arise from systemic noise*, encompassing various decisions made by professionals who we expect to exhibit similar, well-informed judgments. However, reality doesn't always align with this expectation. Unlike biases, noise is more detectable, even if uncertainty surrounds the correct decision. It surfaces as substantial variability in cases where we expect limited diversity. * Noise represents the unwanted variance in individuals' judgments unrelated to biases. It is essential to clarify that the book does not delve into noise within judicial decisions. Understandably, the scale of this phenomenon can be extensive (context-dependent). Notably, these errors don't offset one another; incorrect medical treatment and erroneous premium evaluations are harmful, highlighting the critical impact on individuals. The explored types of noise include: Noise level pertains to situations where two individuals evaluate the same cases. Still, varying perceptions of the rating scale lead one to be consistently more lenient while the other remains strict. Instances also arise where two people interpret the rating scale differently (e.g., defining "outstanding" or establishing the threshold for extenuating circumstances). Rank noise relates to fluctuations in the average rank of judgments made by different evaluators. Stable pattern noise denotes noise that an evaluator consistently applies, such as a constant positive bias towards cases reminiscent of close family members. Pattern noise encompasses the variability in judgments across different evaluators for specific topics. Occasional noise arises from external factors like weather, personal stress, exposure to news, time-of-day fatigue, or preceding case influences. In contrast to pattern noise, random noise leads the same individual to provide different judgments when facing the same instances again (without recalling the initial judgment). Considering the relative extent of these noise sources, it's reasonable to assume that stable pattern noise predominates. Reasons: What are the origins of noise, and how does it manifest? Noise within professional judgment decisions can arise from a multitude of factors, including: Variances in selective attention and recall among individuals. Absence of formal processes coordinating decision stages and components. The disparate weighting of decision-influencing elements by different individuals. Varied evaluations of the same part (e.g., assessing someone's qualities as a team member). Differing skill levels among professionals. Influence of initial impressions regarding the person or case under scrutiny. A sequence of case examinations. Social influence results in consensus or even group polarization and extremism. Fluctuations in brain activity among different individuals. Reluctance to employ automated tools and established rules, notwithstanding their imperfections (accompanied by a degree of skepticism, considering their error rates consistently prove lower than human errors). External factors such as fatigue, stress, time of day, and mood impact decisions. Objective ignorance stems from an intuitive sense characterized by internal satisfaction upon reaching a solution and concluding the judgment process, as the book's authors describe. Experts' overconfidence. Denial of ignorance: the notion that subjects entirely resistant to reasonable intellectual prediction (due to inherent uncertainty) can still be evaluated. Often, individuals who comprehend a subject assume that their understanding of a causal chain of factors enabling specific behavior equips them to predict outcomes. However, retrospective explanations need to be revised to allow for accurate future predictions. Certain individuals' heightened sensitivity to specific aspects of a case. Errors in judgment can also arise due to various biases, including pre-judgment, conversion of complex issues into simpler parallels, excessive coherence, order of information reception, our limited capacity to encompass scales beyond a specific range (typically exceeding 7), difficulties in interpreting intricate rating scales, group influence, and more. Snapshot: How can an organization appraise the presence of noise? Determining the accuracy of a decision in hindsight is feasible in some instances, although only sometimes applicable. Regardless of the context, the extent of noise can be evaluated, whether or not the decision's correctness is known, through consistent testing procedures that organizations can undertake. In such evaluations, organizations scrutinize disparities in decision outcomes. Alternatively, when products are known, the organization calculates the average sum of squared errors (this metric accords equal importance to mistakes in both directions while assigning greater significance to errors significantly deviating from the desired outcome). By examining the peaks in this manner and adeptly discerning biases, the residual errors are ascribed to noise. Organizations must address all forms of errors—both tendencies and noises—utilizing a diverse array of methods, as elaborated upon in the forthcoming chapter, to enhance human judgment in both dimensions. The principal testing methodologies encompass the following: Computer-based assessments are reliant on extensive datasets. These aid in identifying diverse noises, particularly intermittent noises that might be challenging to detect through alternative means. Noise audits involving human experimentation. Implementation details for noise control: Formation of a professional and managerial team tasked with executing the audit. Creation and refinement of cases and accompanying content for audit utilization. 3. Collaborative definition, alongside managers, of expected levels of acceptable non-conformity and cost assessment of errors; Formal documentation of these expectations. Experimenting within the designated units, categorized under decision-making research. A thorough analysis of outcomes and presentation of derived conclusions. Enhancement: Tools for refining human judgment. A diverse array of tools exists to enhance human judgment. These tools encompass both computerized and human-based methodologies, with some combining both elements. While the ensuing list of tools is presented, more is needed to advocate for a complete transition to computer models, removing human involvement from judgment processes altogether. Nonetheless, such an approach could significantly diminish the noise level and improve judgment outcomes in numerous scenarios. It's important to note that there's no one-size-fits-all solution provided here. Rather, a toolkit is offered, encouraging organizations to explore how to integrate its components and employ them to curtail the extent of errors. These errors, unfortunately, have been demonstrated to be notably substantial according to extensive research, hence dismissing their significance would be misguided. Key facets of computerized tools encompass: Rule-based model: This employs straightforward rules defining the decision-making process based on predetermined predictors (some assessable by machines, while others rely on human evaluation). Multiple regression-based models involve calculating diverse weights for predictive factors by comparing results against an objective function (the correct answer). The model is constructed based on these weights. Simple model (linear regression model): This prediction model linearly combines the values of predictive factors. Artificial intelligence/machine learning-based model: This pertains not only to linear patterns but also intricate pattern recognition facilitated by machine learning. 5. [In many instances, it has been revealed that the simple model or even random selection outperforms human judgments on average in terms of noise. Consequently, for most situations, employing a simple model that yields favorable outcomes and is straightforward to implement is recommended. The key human methodologies for enhancing decision hygiene include: Selection of intelligent judges with active mental openness: The unequivocal conclusion is that general mental aptitude significantly contributes to the quality of performance in professional judgment scenarios. Active open-mindedness involves actively seeking information that challenges existing assumptions. Decision observer: Designating an external individual to detect signs of errors. Instruction: Particularly relevant in fields like: Teaching statistical literacy and probabilistic thinking Understanding cognitive biases Control over information disclosure order: Preventing premature impressions and judgments stemming from information desire. For instance, refraining from divulging circumstantial evidence or suspicions to a forensic expert. Meta-information's impact influences both perception and interpretation of observations. Aggregation of independent and diverse judgments: Incorporating diverse and independent judgments based on the concept of crowd wisdom. Several models for implementation exist, with the simplest (effectual in most cases) being averaging. Ensuring judgments are genuinely independent, acquired autonomously, and aggregable is crucial. Group judgment: Encouraging forecast producers to engage with opposing viewpoints, subsequently revisiting decisions after such engagement (requiring mental openness). Judgment guidelines: Offering explicit standards and/or rules for the judgment process. The authors contrast standards, which afford more leeway for human judgment, and rules. The definitive preference between the two remains contingent upon organizational discretion, accounting for factors such as issues at hand, case volume, decision significance, and error cost. Common external-scale-based terminology: Establishing consistent terminologies and scales for judgment processes. Introducing external scales outlining the parameters for each assessment level. Forced ranking is also an option (evaluating judgments relative to adjacent case judgments). Decomposition of judgment into component evaluations: Applied, for instance, in enhancing candidate acceptance assessments. The approach involves focusing on a few (preferably no more than four) independent components, soliciting separate evaluations for each, and subsequently deriving an overall score (either human or average). Integrating holistic judgment intuition occurs only post-individual component grading. As highlighted, no single tool emerges as the ultimate solution for judgment improvement. The book's authors recommend experimentation, refinement, and combining different tools. The book showcases examples across diverse domains, ranging from expert judgment within organizations, forensics, medical directives, forecasting, candidate selection, and strategic corporate decisions. The authors propose an overarching strategy termed the "mediated evaluations protocol," highlighting these key components: 1. Agreement on the decision-making approach. 2. Identification of pivotal decision-influencing factors (referred to as "mediating assessments"), which should be relatively limited and independent from each other. 3. Mobilization of a team to gather data on each distinct key factor. 4. Comprehensive decision process comprising three sub-phases: · Individual judges' evaluation of each element is based on the gathered data. · Collaborative team discussion encompasses the exchange of divergent viewpoints and arguments. · Re-voting by each judge, followed by averaging. While tools are provided to mitigate and lessen noise, the authors refrain from advocating complete noise elimination: 1. Noise reduction entails resource expenditure. The benefits of noise reduction need to be weighed against associated costs. 2. Complete noise elimination, such as through algorithmic introduction (decision mechanization), could hinder the organization's adaptability to changing variables. 3. Algorithms might achieve noise-free outcomes but could inadvertently amplify bias errors. And finally... human judgment fosters respect for the subject of judgment, enabling the application of values like compassion and equitable treatment for exceptional cases. Of course, human judgment also affords respect to the judge, who might occasionally feel overshadowed by automation, a sentiment that warrants consideration. Remember - the objective of judgment is accuracy, not personal expression. Ingeniously integrate human judgment with human and automated noise reduction tools. Strive for an optimal equilibrium to achieve heightened success.

  • Innovative Learning as a marketing channel

    Innovative Learning as a marketing channel 1 December 2021 Moshiko Ofir Previous Article Next Article We are living in an age in which learning is an integral component of our development, as we must remain updated and not stagnate. Learning propels us forward; this insight has been realized recently by business organizations. They have realized that in order to attract new customers and retain current ones, they must create a marketing channel that will serve as a learning platform for their product/products. Previously, in order to learn about a product, one had to take courses via designated learning platforms. Nowadays, companies develop their own courses. The customers, receiving their information from the company itself, then remain in its digital space. For this learning platform to be a valuable marketing tool, companies have set up their own academia, complete with designated programs, courses by category, professional articles, blogs, webinars, etc. This rich content allows this academia to provide knowledge product-oriented solutions, and thus be an effective marketing channel. Examples include: Wix , a fine example of this phenomenon, which has developed a platform for website generation. Wix has started Wix Academy, which provides its users with tools to learn about the platform. There are two main features that assist them in navigation through the broad content: the first being a central search for relevant content, while the second is a map of the terms in the articles under the various categories. In other words, WIX is making website building, which is perceived as a complex field, easy, providing users with effective professional tools for the platform. Salesforce , a powerhouse of cloud computing and CRM solutions. Salesforce has realized that their platform requires in depth learning. Salesforce therefore set up several learning categories under Salesforce Learn, the most popular category being the Trailhead Academy. This category is where Salesforce’s skills are implemented, divided into designated courses. You can also filter them according to rank, position, product, and tags. Another popular category is Trails: guided learning ‘trails’ using modules and projects in the shortest time possible. Trails is designed as a game, featuring a personalized game plan for learning new skills. Through their trails and ordinations, Salesforce is attracting users that want to receive an official professional envelope. Canva , a popular online graphic design platform. Canva has set up its Design School to make the platform’s various tools more accessible. The Design School is divided into courses, instructors, blogs, and events. Canva experts are those that convey the knowledge, so there is a personal learning aspect here that generates a sense of community. Design School was designed to study, experience, and enjoy the learning process through gamification. Kaltura , a cloud-based video experience platform. The company sets up educational video platforms, and therefore created its own Kaltura Learning through which users can dive deeper into the videos small features and experience the platform’s User Experience while learning. Kaltura uses its learning channel as a marketing tool. Besides providing users’ the learning aspect, it provides them with a demo experience of their video platform. A different approach to using innovative learning as a marketing tool is manifested in Linkedin’s learning platform, Linkedin Learning. This platform includes various courses in different areas such as business, technology, creative, etc. The marketing aspect lies in Linkedin advertising courses for learning its social network, while other courses relate to its career and networking vision. Companies have realized that in order to attract new customers and retain current ones, one has to create an innovative and accessible learning schedule, that is not only a platform for its official training and ordination content but can also be used to learn of the company’s latest updates, its newest products and how to use its tools. By setting up a learning channel, companies attract new users and retain current ones through content communities based on personal areas of interest. This grants users special access to content and direct updates from its source. An innovative learning platform allows companies to keep their users in the digital space and generate engagement, a sense of community and a data on products. This marketing channel creates a unique online community based on a knowledge platform and allows users to access and share high quality learning content. The company thus markets itself as accessible, updated, professional and innovative.

  • Collaborative Positioning: Celebrating the difference

    Collaborative Positioning: Celebrating the difference 9 May 2023 Dr. Moria Levy Previous Article Next Article As a knowledge manager, you may feel less comfortable with the concept of positioning, thinking it's something that only concerns marketing professionals. However, positioning is a crucial process for effective competition and collaboration management, and it can help you differentiate yourself in the eyes of your customers and succeed in the new era. Positioning involves classifying and differentiating products, companies, people, territories, and brands. It enables you to distinguish yourself from the competition and stand out in the minds of your customers. Moreover, positioning can also serve as a lever for collaboration. When working alone, positioning helps you celebrate the difference between yourself and your competitors. However, when collaborating with others, positioning takes on a deeper significance. When collaborating with the entire industry or a specific team, you have the opportunity to build a joint positioning based on your differences. This collaborative positioning is much stronger and richer than what you can achieve alone. In a team collaboration scenario, building a joint positioning involves celebrating the differences twice: within the team, creating a strong joint positioning through these clashing differences, and between your team and the rest of the world, celebrating differences based on the positioning you have earned. While collaborative positioning may sound complex, it is a powerful tool that can work almost like magic for your business. By leveraging your differences, celebrating them, and building a strong joint positioning, you can differentiate yourself in the market, succeed in the new era, and collaborate more effectively with others.

  • Promoting KM Programs

    Sharing Hidden Know-How - Book review "Sharing Hidden Know-How" by Katrina Pugh introduces the Knowledge Jam method for transferring tacit knowledge, developed at Intel and adopted globally. The book covers Jam stages, facilitator roles, and success tips. A valuable guide for effective knowledge transfer, it emphasizes collaboration and practical application. Highly recommended! > Focus - Book review Daniel Goleman, the renowned author, has written extensively on emotion and leadership. His 2013 book, "Focus: The Hidden Driver of Excellence," explores the relationship between emotion and attention, encompassing topics such as focus, the challenges of maintaining focus, mind wandering, self-awareness, self-control, empathy, and key takeaways. The book emphasizes the significance of self-awareness, self-control, and empathy in improving focus and offers practical strategies for enhancing attention and achieving success. > To Sell is Human - Book review In Daniel Pink's 2012 book, he redefines salesmanship, asserting that everyone is a salesperson. He explores the evolving sales landscape, contemporary salesperson characteristics, buoyancy in the face of rejection, and the importance of clarity, offering three key sales skills. > Leadership - Book review In "Leadership" (2002), Rudolph Giuliani reflects on his tenure as Mayor of New York City, sharing insights on conviction, learning, managing subordinates, and effective interactions. He emphasizes preparation, promoting the right people, and fostering trust and respect. > The Fall of the Alphas - Book review "The Fall of the Alphas" by Dana Ardi (2013) challenges the traditional Alpha organizational model, introducing the "BETA" management concept. It emphasizes leadership through collaboration, transparent communication, and employee empowerment, promoting a more flexible and supportive workplace culture for sustained success. > Give and Take - Book review "Give and Take: A Revolutionary Approach to Success" by Adam Grant (2013) explores giving's role in success, categorizing individuals into "givers," "takers," and "balancers." It details the benefits of giving, challenges givers face, and provides practical tips for personal growth. > KNOW CAN DO! - Book review "KNOW CAN DO!" by Blanchard, Jamier, and Rohe provides a concise guide to turning knowledge into action. It highlights a three-step approach: mastering essentials through repetition, adopting a positive mindset, and implementing systematic follow-up for effective learning and lasting change. This practical guide offers valuable insights for success. > The Brain That Changes Itself - Book review Norman Doidge's "The Brain That Changes Itself" explores neuroplasticity, where the brain adapts and changes. It outlines four types of flexibility and emphasizes genetics, environment, and individual-level training in shaping our brains. It's a valuable read for brain science and personal development enthusiasts. > Decisive - Book review "Decisive: How to Make Better Decisions" by Chip and Dan Heath is a practical guide on decision-making, offering strategies like generating alternatives, challenging assumptions, and emphasizing negotiation, organizational justice, and consistency in the process. Valuable for all decision-makers. > Expressing via Graphs Bella Graff's "Graph Expression" is a 2023 digital book (Hebrew) on data visualization, offering a comprehensive model for crafting meaningful graphs. It covers key concepts such as purpose, measurement, categories, and visualization structure, emphasizing the importance of combining visuals and text for enhanced data understanding and decision-making. Graff's book equips readers with valuable tools for precise graph design. > The Secret Lies in People - Book review "The Secret Lies in People" by Morton Mandel, a philanthropic leader, emphasizes people as the core of success. Mandel stresses hiring the best individuals, focusing on outstanding customer service, and striving for excellence in management. His philosophy extends to charitable giving, where he advocates making a meaningful impact. Mandel's book offers valuable insights into success and the importance of integrity, leadership, and philanthropy. > Start with Why - Book review "Start with Why" by Simon Sinek, a 2009 bestseller, advocates for a mission-driven leadership approach. It explores the 'WHY-HOW-WHAT' framework, highlighting emotional connections, shared values, and alignment between purpose, principles, and actions for lasting success. > Promoting KM Programs Previous Item Next Item Load more

  • New Mobile trends of 2016

    New Mobile trends of 2016 1 February 2016 Moran Maravi Previous Article Next Article 2015 featured mobile devices as its big star and according to evaluations so will 2016. What can we expect to see in 2016 in the world of mobile devices? Smarter Data , Sharper results: We live in a world of "economy by demand" and companies such as Airbnb have made the idea of shared economy a reality. Similarly, in the mobiles' marketing space "data pooling" will become a reality this year. Nowadays, rich data sits in several locations such as electronic trade companies, taxi applications etc. All these companies hold certain insights regarding their client a possible scenario sees data from multiple sources merged together. This merging will enable marketers to learn richer insights regarding their users. This situation consists of potential cooperation between the companies that hold data and those that can profit from it. Advertisement companies will lead this trend and will supply data from multiple sources. Video advertisement: 2015's mobile advertisement costs passed the 4.5 million dollar margin and it is safe to assume that 2016 won't be any different. Video advertisement generates high engagement. A 30 second video clip enables the user to view more content and enjoy a user experience with a higher level of involvement. Sound, too, enables advertisements to catch more attention and is therefore more attractive to advertisers. The return of cellular websites: This coming year will feature a comeback of cellular websites since many organizations have taken users' needs into consideration. This year will focus on cellular websites as well as applications that will provide a fascinating user experience. Relevance and adblock: A main challenge the mobile advertisement branch struggles with is the increase of mobile adblock applications . The result is yet to be felt in cellular media, since applications mainly affect the web, leading to organizations shifting their advertisement budget to advertising in applications. The most significant move marketing are making in order to fight back is presenting advertisements relevant to mobile users. Remember, the original reason adblock software have been developed is that advertisers missed the whole point of advertisement; repeatedly disturbing someone with advertisement content when he/she is uninterested. Payment Options: Cash, plastic and now Mobile; it's only a matter of time till your cellular phone number becomes your virtual credit card or bank account number. Mobile wallets will be used for all purchases (from groceries to fast food orders) and will be rechargeable for internet purchases as well. Complementary clothing items- Fitbit, Moto 360, IWatch: Everybody wants a piece of the mobile accessory pie. According to forecasts regarding 2016, these items will usher in new advertisement medium integrating popular social media platforms, video channels and even enable DMs. Apps, Apps and yet more Apps: Companies such as Uber and others intend to make extensive use of the term 'shared economy' which has already been mentioned in this review and is extremely popular in evolving markers such as China and India. Commercial companies such as Amazon and eBay hold sales exclusively through mobile devices as well as offer a special discount if the products are purchased via applications. Communication companies and e-marketing companies hold large amounts of user data , so this coming year will probably feature applications which offer a more personal experience (primarily foe purchasing products that suit each specific user). In conclusion, it is safe to say that the year 2016 will directly continue rising trends in the field of video advertisement which have begun in 2015. It seems that mobile devices will continue to be an inseparable part of our lives and will break out into other fields.

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