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  • How AI Marketing is changing the digital world

    How AI Marketing is changing the digital world 1 June 2023 Moshiko Ofir Previous Article Next Article The digital world is constantly evolving, and as a result, marketing strategies need to adapt to keep up with the latest technology, business trends, and human psychology. The emergence of artificial intelligence (AI) has fundamentally transformed interpersonal communication, setting the stage for a technological revolution similar to the advent of the Internet in the late 1990s and laptops in the early 2000s. In recent years, people have increasingly engaged with the digital world across various aspects of their lives. This shift has led to significant changes in user behaviors, making it more challenging to predict their next move. In this new world, the key to success lies in the ability to analyze vast amounts of data and respond to it in real time. This is where AI marketing comes into play. Understanding AI Marketing: AI marketing utilizes artificial intelligence technologies to automate decision-making processes based on data analysis. By collecting and analyzing data, AI systems draw conclusions about consumers and the market, enabling the development of targeted digital marketing strategies. The transformative power of AI in the digital world can be observed in various areas: Key Information Data: Accurate and actionable data is crucial for effective marketing. AI-based marketing automation collects, organizes, and analyzes valuable marketing data, facilitating targeted marketing campaigns. Improved A/B Testing: A/B testing is vital for measuring the success of different marketing strategies. AI algorithms can accelerate and enhance A/B testing, allowing for precise evaluation of text and responsive design options. Virtual Agents: Consumers now seek convenient ways to find information independently. AI systems, through virtual agents such as chatbots, offer 24/7 customer support. These agents utilize user data to guide sales and advertising efforts, while also delegating relevant tasks to human service agents. Targeted Lead Generation: Artificial intelligence can cross different communication channels to construct personalized profiles for potential customers. Advanced algorithms even enable the tailoring of marketing messages to individual leads, predicting conversion likelihood and facilitating follow-up actions. Content Creation: AI technology can generate marketing content and analyze user responses. From personalized content suggestions to copywriting and calls to action, AI streamlines content creation processes. Scheduled Messages: To effectively engage users who frequently switch platforms, AI can track customer preferences, analyze actions, and determine the optimal timing for contacting users with greetings, offers, or content. Apparently, this topic may not seem directly connected to knowledge management; however, it holds great relevance. In recent years, we have come to realize and embrace the notion that we cannot overlook the way we treat our knowledge management users. Instead, we must regard them as consumers and employ various marketing techniques to enhance knowledge management activities and cater to both internal and external users. AI marketing has already reshaped the digital landscape, revolutionizing traditional marketing approaches. Although machines now perform tasks previously handled by humans, AI reduces workload, allowing marketers to dedicate more time to creativity and thoroughness. By streamlining processes, AI fosters growth and drives efficiency in marketing endeavors. AI marketing is reshaping the digital world, requiring marketers to adapt to new technological advancements. With the power to analyze vast amounts of data and make automated decisions, AI enables targeted marketing strategies, personalized experiences, and improved customer engagement. As the future unfolds, harnessing the potential of AI will be pivotal in staying ahead in the dynamic digital marketplace.

  • Sensibility, sensitivity and Change Management

    Sensibility, sensitivity and Change Management 1 December 2019 Ella Antes Previous Article Next Article I've had the fortune of directing a fascinating and challenging project that involved implementing a new digital platform in a global organization. This project required I analyze the implementation process, and so I found myself facing various lists and documents scattered around my desk. It became late, but my brain was buzzing with excitement and enthusiasm! Here I am, with the chance to analyze an implementation process for a global digital platform to be launched in forty different countries. Eighteen months have since passed. The platform has been launched and successfully implemented in over thirty countries via this process. And so I've decided to share my insights about process management and analysis with you. I hope to highlight some issues regarding the sensitivity managing this change involves. As we at ROM say, sharing is caring. Consider the process starting from the end back to the beginning, using consequential thinking: what is the objective? What do we want to happen at the end of the process? What must be done for us to arrive at that result? Ask yourselves this question regarding each stage and even subsidiary stage: What products define the completion of each stage? Who are your partners? What are your areas of responsibility and what are theirs? Do you interact and at what stages? Which actions depend on others? What cannot be done before the completion of a previous stage? What can be executed simultaneously? How much time does each stage in the process require? Once you've constructed a detailed process, including all stages and subsidiary stages, it's time to simplify it. Simplifying and reducing it to a concise description allows you to tell others about it. A simple graphic scheme can be an excellent aid to complement your presentation. For example, a graph displaying the main stages on a timeline complete with the relevant personnel for each stage. Consider your target audience, your intra-organizational customers: how can we make things easier for them? What do you really need to get from them? How can we assist them in fulfilling the tasks they were assigned in the process? This must be done in a friendly manner that requires minimal resource investment on their behalf. Review the process with a single team/unit as a pilot. The pilot is an excellent chance to synchronize and finetune the stages of the process, to understand which of the stages or sub-processes runs smoothly and which does not. This allows you to identify glitches which haven't been considered during the analysis stage. This resource investment will be returned in an increased sense of security and trust in the process (and in you as its leader). This, in turn, will allow you to direct the process and its subsequent change to its destination. It takes two to tango: it is no secret that changing and implementing a new platform or process in an organization is challenging for both the change leader and the edge customer executing the change process. Involve the customer in the process, its stages, the effort it will require from them and the product's final display. Receive the customer's approval for the process's different stages. Allow alterations when required and adopt a generally flexible approach. Manage the process. Consider the best way to manage the process in accordance with your target audience or edge customers. Is email a sufficient method? Are phone calls required at some point along the way? Perhaps weekly meetings are required? Detail the managerial routines that will lead to the completion of each stage. Share these routines with your customer. Set time slots for shared work, synchronizing, material review, etc. Making sure you're on the same page regarding the process management's framework enforces the sense of trust as well as contribution to the process. Choose the tools that can assist you to manage the process efficiently: digital tools for task management, material storage and sharing, joint online work, and creating template documents for products required at different stages of the process. No one loves homework. Instead of assigning large tasks, break them down to smaller tasks and assign them gradually to the customer or relevant unit. Make sure these tasks can each be completed in a week. Make sure to compliment your customers and their managers/colleagues for a task completed optimally, an idea brought up or a generally positive attitude. You catch flies better with honey than with vinegar. In conclusion, success leads to success. Successful completing the change in an organic unit with all parties satisfied? Don't keep it a secret! Share your success stories. This single successful change can open the door to the next customer. For more on change management methodologies, click here .

  • Sharing sometimes requires out-of-the-box thinking

    Sharing sometimes requires out-of-the-box thinking 1 December 2021 Dr. Moria Levy Previous Article Next Article And again, we meet on our ISO30401 team, planning ways to foster the global implementation of the KM standard. Easing implementation requires a toolbox: guides, presentations, templates, and forms. As experienced knowledge managers, we do not want to develop everything from scratch, rather collect materials that were already prepared. But here comes the catch. Too many of those materials were developed by KM consultants that make their living from such projects. So even if they are kind and willing to share some of what has been prepared, we as a KM community have to protect them by figuring out a way to share yet safeguard them and their needs. Giving them credit for what was shared is a nice idea, but not enough. Something better is required. As usual, brainstorming has advantages, and critical thinking helps us out here. We will ask people to share part of their stuff- as to what is convenient to them, but also to share highlights of the remaining materials. That way, organizations can learn the directions and decide whether to continue by themselves or address those consultants for help. WIN-WIN. Organizations get a starting point, KM consultants get an opportunity for new projects, and we, as the global KM community, continue pushing forward the KM standard and the KM level around the globe. Anyone who has ideas or materials regarding ISO30401 implementation- please send them to me, and we will add them to the new toolbox. Once it gains momentum, we will invite you all to come and consume the content. Waiting for you all. This post was initially published in LinkedIn

  • What is the relationship between content reading and the user experience?

    What is the relationship between content reading and the user experience? 1 August 2014 Maya Fleisher Previous Article Next Article Let's start off with a personal survey: to which statement do you relate? Every article I read on the internet, I read in its entirety: from its beginning to its end. I usually enter the article, read the title, maybe the introduction. I then search for lines required in order to understand the bottom line. If you found yourself choosing the second statement, you undoubtedly reassure the researches and surveys' results: people don't read articles, they skim through them . Our skimming habits are understandable in light of the website inflation, the information overload and the lack of time. When looking for something specific (and the article indeed interests us), the chances of us reading its entire contents rise. What happens at our workplace? Our skimming habits are copied to our work environment. With an overload of information, instructions, procedures and too many tasks to perform- the chance we actually read procedures/professional information is slim (even if their content is very important). When working with different companies and organizations I am exposed to the amount of information daily written information distributed to the workers. Many resources are invested in writing these contents, in summarizing them as much as possible and transferring to them to the relevant workers hoping they read, comprehend and implement. Nevertheless, not all the information is read and is transferred to the workers as required. So what do we do about this? We must consider the users already at the stage of writing the content and give more 'space' for the user experience by making the content itself accessible. How can we do this? Hereby are some suggestions that may ease the reading and ensure that the critical message was indeed fully transmitted, including work procedures and work processes that contain much indispensable information: Visual index : enables the reader to quickly understand what is to be found in this document and in the case of work procedures will provide the user with a document map that enables understanding the process simply. A smart document format provides an excellent solution for this need. Colors, pictures & icons : colors, pictures and icons are everywhere and prove liveliness. Furthermore, the photographic memory assists us in remembering what we read or at least where we read it. That said, we must be cautious and not overload the document with colors. If we included colors or icons we must make sure that they are of the same 'language' and keep an overall clean visibility. Short, categorized segments : it is easier and less intimidating to begin reading content divided into short segments than to read an entire page (if not more) full of text. Don't forget concise writing . Attractive titles : generates interest and curiosity. Furthermore, it is recommended to use questions as a title according to the type of content and document type. This makes the user participate in a 'dialogue' with the document. A "punch line": extracting the important "bottom line" as an introduction for the content so that even if the user doesn't read all the content we can still ensure that the main message is transmitted successfully. It is possible to extract one sentence and use it under the title 'in a nutshell' or up to 3 sentences as a brief summary of the content (relevant when most of the content cannot be summarized). Spacing and pagination : simple and effective. The color white soothes the eye and eases focusing on differently colored content. Bottom line Organizational content (whether a procedure, a work process, instruction or even a newsletter) is important and is indispensable. If it could have been discarded-it would be advisable to indeed do so and spare the time and effort invested in writing the document. Nevertheless, the importance of the knowledge does not ensure reading it. We must assist the reader/create an engagement in order for the reading to actually happen. If you've reached this far, I hope you reached here by reading and did not skim your way through this article, thus proving I have successfully implemented my own suggestions. I'd be glad to hear from you about other ideas or examples of cases in which designing helped transmitting the organizational and professional content.

  • Simple Content Management

    Simple Content Management 1 June 2017 Ella Antes Previous Article Next Article Behind every organizational website, be it a desktop-based or mobile website, there is a Content Management System (CMS) which enables edge-users access to organizational content. Usually, much thought is invested in workers' UX and substantial resources are invested in design, user reviews etc in order to generate optimal, meaningful interactions with edge users. Yet, while edge users enjoy a user friendly website, content managers usually experience websites quite differently. This phenomenon might not seem critical since content managers are well-versed in dealing with content managing systems: navigating through website content trees, incorporating complex graphics and editing code if needed. While the prevailing opinion is that most resources should be allocated to benefiting most workers. The handful of content managers seems irrelevant or at least insignificant. Nevertheless, recently content management processes have been going through some changes. The shift from 'Intranet' to 'Digital Workplace' is also manifested in the transition from single/central content management to sharing within a group of content managers. It is highly important to website and community managers that workers visit the website and are provided useful quality content with added value. The content is uploaded to the website by a vast network of content managers. Content managing is usually not their sole position; they are therefore not proficient content managers. Usually, content managers are merely workers sharing and uploading content to a website dedicated to a specific organizational or professional field in addition to their actual position as HR managers or organizational security officials etc. Each worker is requested to contribute their content segment in order to provide workers with the aforementioned rich content experience. What will happen if and when these supposed content managers need to deal with a content management system that is usually used by skilled content managers? Will they know how to operate the various components? Will they persist in their uploading? They probably won't. So, what do we do? Most of us know how to advertise content via our Facebook account. This is a simple and intuitive activity. This is a substantially different editing experience than content editing in a CM system. Use social networks' content editing systems as inspiration for creating an organizational content management system which is as clear and user friendly as possible. How can this be accomplished? By identifying central content managers' work processes, which are usually characterized by two main components: uploading new content and performing various editing activities with existing content (corrections, removing outdated content, etc). Examining the editing process in its entirety and charting activities that require cognitive effort from content editors and is therefore perceived as too complex to execute. Hereby is an example of a simplification of these complex activities. Effort: Locating the area in the site's content tree in which you wish to create a content item Possible Solution: Creating a landing page for content managers that contains a feature which allows choosing desired location for new page from a list paired with a "create new item" button can save the content manager the arduous navigation through various sub-websites and website navigation tree. Effort: Adapting pictures to the content template Possible solution: Creating a picture gallery pre-cut in fitting sizes for CM use or adding an application which enables automatic adaption. Effort: Locating the data within the page- where does one put the title? Where does the text go? Possible solution: creating content templates paired with a micro-copy, short instructions similar to those given when filling in an e-form: insert title here, insert text here etc. Unskilled Content Managers, Facebook and CMS all share an obvious common denominator: simplicity. Of course, a user friendly content management system is only one aspect of engagement and UX among others, on which I will hopefully elaborate in further articles.

  • Internal Accessibility

    Internal Accessibility 1 March 2015 Lior Moran Previous Article Next Article Till 20 years ago, finding information was a complex mission. Most of us remember it as an effort: you had to go to the library, search through encyclopedias and turn to other people for answers. Nowadays, we still search for information, only there is the internet which has made searching for information an effortless action. With the click of a mouse, we receive endless information. Now that we have all this information, we must navigate through it and locate the relevant information within the page or document, in the shortest time possible. People like skimming, they don't have the time to read the full text they are presented. This is where "internal accessibility" comes into play. Internal accessibility deals with providing a user with the means necessary for optimal navigation in a document or knowledge page he/she is presented, in order for him/her to optimally comprehend its content. Several methods are used in order to provide internal accessibility: Smart documents-An orderly organization of the document and creating the document smartly: opening the document with an organized document map followed by information nuggets derived from it. For more information regarding the method: Templates- Using uniform templates for documents/knowledge pages can assist the user in navigating through the document and save time spent on the cognitive effort of understanding the content. Icons: Using icons and tags can assist the user in understanding the context and relevance of the information. Highlighting: Internal highlighting and tables are very important as they organize the information structurally, making it more appealing. Furthermore, information presented in this manner is usually short and concise, and as such is more effective than full passages. Pictures: Inserting pictures lightens up the atmosphere and provides the text with an informal appeal (which does not mean it is actually informal). To conclude, using these tools may assist users in navigating through a document/page/item and comprehending its content in the clearest way. Note: if one does not reach the content, he/she will obviously not have the chance to comprehend it. So why waste time and effort on finding it, if the result will be ignoring what is read? Internal Accessibility is critical for reaching specific information, understanding it and using it. Therefore, it is highly recommended.

  • Boosting the implementation of ISO30401- a collaborative community project

    Boosting the implementation of ISO30401- a collaborative community project 17 April 2023 Dr. Moria Levy Previous Article Next Article Published on Knowledge Management Essentials • Das Kuratierte Dossier, Band 5 • März 2023 Alle Beiträge • Kontakt Redaktionsteam . Republished with authorization. Preface- the Knowledge Management discipline development When I teach KMers, the history of the knowledge management discipline, in a university class, I pack it all in one lesson. KM is such a new discipline, and the main milestones can be counted probably using the fingers of one person (no toes required). Some will even argue that one hand will do: Coining the term of the knowledge worker (Peter Drucker, Landmarks of Tomorrow, 1959); The first well-known model explaining KM, or even more specifically, knowledge creation: the SECI model (Ikujiro Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi, The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation, 1995); The first (agreed) practical book explaining how to implement KM in organizations (Larry Prusak and Thomas Davenport, Working Knowledge, 1998). Somewhere before the term knowledge management was coined. But what more? And what after? Many years have passed. Knowledge Management as a discipline developed; however, we didn’t experience any milestones. Thought leaders argued about definitions and principles. KM enlarged from mainly handling documents and communities of practice to a rich arsenal of solutions focused on organizational business needs, but no milestones were detected. And then came 2018. After years of finding Australian and British unsuccessful attempts to define an agreed ISO-based guide, the word spread: ISO released a management standard defining KM requirements. Indeed, this was a revolution. The standard resulted from about twenty KM and ISO experts from many different places around the world sitting and discussing together for over two years, paragraph after paragraph, sentence after sentence, and word after word. Again and again. And again. A significant portion of the debates was resolved. It took some time, and most of those who tried to object (how can knowledge be managed? why should we agree to what a set of people suggest?) turned out to be a minority. Looking at thought leaders, books, and organizations, it seems we have a maturing discipline. We even agree on some ideas about what is essential and what KM excellence is. One may think this was an ending; however, the central part has just begun. KMGN – The Knowledge Management Global Network Meantime, sometime in 2014, somewhere in East Asia, some KMers from different countries asked themselves how they could collaborate on their KM thinking. They established KMGN, the Knowledge Management Global Network. They started meeting and working together, slowly but systematically adding friends and colleagues from other countries and networks. In 2019 the objectives enlarged: Not only should we perform better KM in our organizations and societies. We have a mission. Networks representing 12 countries are already a community and have a responsibility. We can and must influence the KM discipline. We can give our share of bringing prosperity to the world through better KM in organizations and society. To succeed with such a sublime vision, KMGN had to carry several actions: To act, work, and be positioned as the most collaborative KM network. A network that does not earn such a degree of collaboration will find it challenging to develop the KM discipline significantly. To add as many KM networks as possible to KMGN. Adding networks enables the spread of new ideas and realizing the desired influence. To start working together as a community, developing the KM disciplines in areas where such is missing. ISO30401 implementation was one of the projects fulfilling the latter. The ISO30401 implementation project The ISO30401 project was initiated to answer a KM need. From all over the world, we started hearing colleagues feeling uncomfortable with the slow level of ISO30401 implementation. It was natural. Management standards take much work to implement. If there are not enough organizations that implement it, it cannot turn out to be an actual mandatory requirement of customers when choosing their suppliers. If there are not enough certified organizations, it will not turn out to be a trend, and no pressure will be set to convince more organizations to aim for certification. The slower new organizations joined the respectful club of those with certification, the more challenging it was to add more. No one even had a list of who and how many organizations were certified. Management standards define a high level of execution; hence, wide adoption of ISO30401 can serve as a movement to improve the level of knowledge management in organizations. Several thought leaders, starting in Pakistan, came up with the idea that what one cannot do alone, i.e., pushing the standard implementation forward, should be performed collaboratively. We understood that KMGN is fit to be the right platform, and such an initiative aligns with the KMGN vision and serves it. The ISO30401implementation infrastructure The ISO30401 infrastructure, now open and free to use, is a toolbox including four toolkits: Starters toolkit A set of 11 video clips, and their accompanying presentations, explaining, step by step, what the ISO30401 is, what its requirements are, and why are the introduction and annexes, which do not include any requirement, essential for every KMer. This toolkit aims to introduce and mediate the language of ISO to KMers, easing the process of reading and understanding the standard. Compass toolkit A toolkit including: a brief explaining the content of this toolkit and how to use it a detailed questionnaire that organizations are requested to answer a tool helping all organizations evaluate and grade themselves in the questionnaire above in an objective way, comparable to all others using this tool a radar on which every organization can place itself, learning what are the dimensions that should be addressed as part of the KM workplan a work plan template for short, medium, and long-term activities. This toolkit aims to help organizations learn where to invest to excel, enabling them to benchmark themselves to other organizations. Advance toolkit A toolkit that enables organizations with an advanced KM program, to translate their existing objectives, plans, and activities to the ISO language. The tool kit comprises a brief (instructions on how to use it) and a set of templates that can be used. This toolkit aims to help organizations with excellent KM win the certification efficiently and effectively, with minimal effort. A resources toolkit A set of lists, videos, and documents that can supplement the process. ISO30401 implementation – what next? So now that we have a standard, and an implementation toolbox, what next? Well, again, we are at an end. An end that is a beginning to a third stage: Actual implementation of the ISO30401 implementation in organizations, based on the infrastructure prepared. Spoiler: This third additional stage is probably the “last” end. No more steps will be needed after. Just to enjoy the outcomes of prosperity due to excellent knowledge management programs in organizations. We are all waiting for that day.

  • Establishing a Lessons Learned Program - Book review

    Establishing a Lessons Learned Program - Book review 1 March 2016 Dr. Moria Levy Previous Article Next Article The book "Establishing a Lessons Learned Program" is a handbook authored by the US Army Learning Division (CALL) in 2012. This book offers a comprehensive framework for addressing the subject, encompassing cultural and procedural aspects. The book covers a wide range of topics, including: 1. Organizational Motivation for a Lessons Learned Program 2. Understanding Key Terminology 3. Rationale – The Why Behind a Lessons Learned Program 4. Organizational Preparation for Implementing a Lessons Learned Plan 5. Collection of Lessons 6. Analysis 7. Sharing of Insights 8. Implementing Change 9. Evaluation 10. Helpful Tips Within its pages, the book presents real-world examples of lessons learned programs in various organizations such as the US Army, the US Department of Energy, NASA, and others. It also offers specific guidance on data collection, interview techniques, and the process of summarizing lessons learned. I had the privilege of receiving this book from the Lessons Learned Unit of CALL when I engaged in a stimulating conversation with its commanders. It is constantly enriching to learn, especially from individuals recognized as leaders in this field globally. Organizational Motivation for a Lessons Learned Program Understanding Key Terminology Here are key terms to acquaint yourself with when participating in a lessons-learned program: 1.Lesson: Knowledge or understanding acquired through experience. 2. Best Practice: A positive experience or constructive lesson that can be quantified through changes in behavior. 3.Lesson Learned: Knowledge derived from past experiences that can be applied to future situations. 4.Knowledge: A spectrum of strategies and practices an enterprise employs to identify, create, represent, disseminate, and apply insights and experiences. Knowledge can exist at the individual level or be integrated into organizational processes. Types of Knowledge: Tacit Knowledge: Personal knowledge grounded in ideas, insights, values, and judgment. Explicit Knowledge: Knowledge formally transferred from one individual to another through systematic means, such as documents, emails, or multimedia. This knowledge can be conveyed in a relatively straightforward manner. Organizational Knowledge: The amalgamation of vital data, information, knowledge, and intelligence that empowers the organization to learn from its experiences, innovate, make decisions, devise solutions, execute tasks, or instigate changes. It's worth noting that approximately 80% of knowledge within an organization is often considered tacit. 5.Knowledge Management: Organizational initiatives concentrated on enhancing the attainment of organizational objectives, such as performance enhancement, competitive advantage, and continual improvement. Additional Commentary: 1.numerous other definitions exist, including those for related concepts like comprehension, information, judgment, cognition, and processes. These have not been expounded upon above for the sake of conciseness. 2.The explanations for these terms correspond to their presentation in the book and may not necessarily mirror the terminology used in professional Israeli jargon. Rationale – The Why Behind a Lessons Learned Program There are numerous reasons to justify the implementation of a lessons-learned program within an organization, including: 1.Time Savings: A centralized repository for past lessons learned saves time by providing a convenient location to search for and access valuable insights from previous experiences. 2.Success and Error Insights: The program offers valuable information about replicable success stories and preventable errors, enhancing decision-making processes. 3.Network Building: It becomes part of an interconnected network that includes information, experts, or other relevant resources for each subject area. Most importantly- Error Prevention: Reducing the risk of recurring errors significantly decreases the likelihood of repeated mistakes and fosters continued success. At the business level, this program allows for: • Enhanced Project Management: It contributes to improving project management processes. • Informed Decision-Making: The program aids in making informed decisions and developing new strategies. • Enhanced Functionary Performance: It plays a role in improving the performance of various personnel within the organization. • Knowledge Enrichment: Implementing such a program contributes to accumulating and enhancing organizational knowledge. • Resource and Life Savings: It has the potential to save lives and resources, including money, equipment, and time. Organizational Preparation for Implementing a Lessons Learned Plan The organizational preparations for a lessons-learned plan encompass the following: 1.Supportive Organizational Culture: This stands as the most critical requirement. It involves implementing change management among commanders, managers, and leaders to ensure: a.The Ability to Self-Reflect b.The Capacity for Self-Critique Without managers' commitment to this process, the organization may face challenges in its implementation. 2.Strategy Determination for the Lessons Learned Plan: a.Goal Setting: Establishing clear objectives for the plan. b.Identification: Identifying the primary areas for improvement that should be the program's focus. c.Methodology Selection: Deciding on the approach to be used, considering factors such as available resources and organizational constraints. d.Program Integration: Exploring how the program can seamlessly integrate into the organization's work processes. After establishing a comprehensive infrastructure for organizational lessons learned, developing a Set of Procedures, Policies, Guidelines, and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) is advisable to facilitate the program's implementation. Learning Opportunities Starting Point: The subjects of interest being examined, from which an organization aims to draw lessons, typically revolve around issues that trouble the organization or even give rise to problems. The organization seeks to refine its approach to handling these matters. Each organization will define its unique list of potential opportunities for learning lessons, including: a.Training Events and Exercises b.Experiments, Tests, and Trials aligned with the unit's mission c.Conferences and Planning Meetings that support the unit's mission d.Events and Missions Establishing an annual work plan that coordinates the timing and locations for gathering lessons is advisable. This program should also maintain flexibility to address unforeseen events and emergencies, allowing for swift adjustments when necessary. One of the most significant challenges during the collection phase is selecting the areas of interest that warrant efforts in gathering lessons. These issues may be determined by a combination of factors, including: a.Direct instructions from higher authorities b.Issues identified as crucial for improvement, often stemming from feedback received from multiple field units, highlighting recurring problems c.Issues identified through systematic analysis as essential for advancing leadership and management Assigning varying levels of importance to these subjects, assessing associated risks, and making informed decisions on where to allocate collection efforts is essential. The work plan for gathering lessons should be detailed, providing guidelines for coordinators and officials. It should outline questions, methodology, document sources, interview lists, travel plans, and support and computer systems. Data Collection Techniques: • Testing and validating hypotheses during debriefing • A structured top-down approach involving experts who clarify the issue through predefined questions and a suitable list of interviewees • An open-ended information-gathering process aimed at uncovering insights from the data • Research-based data collection • Assigning a dedicated individual responsible for gathering information and accompanying the team • After-Action Review (AAR): A discussion held after activities, followed by writing a report serving as both a historical document and a source of lessons learned. The summary report should encompass an introduction, executive summary, detailed chapters, and appendices. The manual outlines various formats accepted by the military and NATO for these chapters, which include descriptions, discussions, and lessons/recommendations. Tips: • Training: Provide preliminary and ongoing training to individuals familiar with the chosen methodologies for gathering lessons. • Timing: Collect data as closely as possible to the occurrence of the events. • Question Planning: Formulate open-ended questions while avoiding closed (yes/no) and judgmental questions. • Scope: Limit the number of topics to 6-12. • Flexibility: Exercise flexibility and be prepared to deviate from the original plan when necessary. • Objectivity: Maintain objectivity during debriefing and documentation, avoiding judgment. • Classification: Draft investigative reports at the lowest possible classification level. • Validation: Share the draft investigative report with the unit for their input; consider leaving it in its raw, unprocessed form without binding recommendations. Analysis The analysis stage aims to identify areas of activity with the potential for improvement, building upon the information gathered in the previous step. This stage systematically transforms raw data into recommendations, encompassing: a. Validation b. Completions c. Recommendations Validation: Ensuring the validity of recommendations from the field involves: • Scrutinizing the breadth of sources used during data collection. • Comparing findings with previous investigations and revisiting related recommendations. • Identifying critical areas for focused analysis. • Verify and validate with the unit and relevant stakeholders if not already conducted. Completions: If necessary, the analysis phase may include: • Further research, including interviews with individuals connected to the activity. • Consultations with external experts. • Organizational deliberations regarding the diagnosis and root causes underlying the observed outcomes. • Statistical analysis of surveys, interviews, or other pertinent data. Recommendations and Corrective Actions: • Presenting results in a clear and understandable format. • Ensuring that recommendations are practical and actionable, specifying the responsible bodies or officials for leading corrective actions. • Providing supporting documentation such as interview transcripts or other information that led to the recommendations. • The analysis phase translates initial diagnoses from the collection stage into positive experiences (best practices) and lessons learned. When conducted accurately, the analysis stage facilitates formulating an action plan and allocating the necessary resources for implementing corrective actions. Sharing of Insights The ability to share lessons learned constitutes a vital component of any lessons learned program. The sharing phase encompasses the following: a. Informing while considering the significance and urgency of the recommendations. b. Storing the information in a database for future reference. Informing: The method of notification varies depending on the urgency of the recommendations: • Immediate (within five days): Communication through messages (e.g., email or other forms of transmission). • Urgent (within 30 days): Publication of an article. • Routine (within 90 days): Compilation into a report. Furthermore, here are examples of potential communication channels, each differing in terms of content nature, scope, and frequency: • Handbook Guide (specific topic "HOW TO" guide). • Newsletter. • Periodical Journal (weekly, monthly, or quarterly). • Topic-focused Articles. • Specialized Advertising (focused on a particular topic or activity). • Diagnostic Reports. It's crucial to structure documents to facilitate their effective utilization in future projects. Information should be stored in a designated repository or content site, and supportive information systems can be employed to manage the lessons learned process. When storing information, it's vital to consider its future utility, serving as historical documentation and for retrieval purposes. Decisions regarding inclusion in the database and classification (content and authorization) should align with these needs. Implementing Change The most challenging step in any lessons-learned program is establishing a process for promptly addressing issues identified during data analysis. The success of this stage relies on: a. Having a supportive and engaged managerial figure to lead the process, assume responsibility, and provide sponsorship for its execution, equipped with appropriate authority. b. Allocating resources and prioritizing tasks for implementation. For instance, in a military context, top priority is given to matters concerning human life and high-level risks. The guideline outlined in the book emphasizes that if these aspects are integrated into the lessons learned program's budgets and resources, they will be part of the program itself. c. Formulating an action plan for implementation. Challenges: Resolution of many issues necessitates involvement from multiple parties rather than a single department. Several issues require an extended resolution process, particularly those related to materials or equipment. d. Executing the corrective plan. As previously explained, programs in the US Army fall into one of seven DOTMLPF categories. Rarely will the Lessons Learned Unit assume responsibility. Evaluation Validating the lesson falls under the purview of the Lessons Learned Unit. The underlying assumption is that behavior can be integrated and improved upon despite personnel changes within units, as this is an ongoing, people-centered process. The assessment can be approached from various perspectives: a. Evaluating the practical application of recommended behaviors. b. Assessing organizational or unit performance. c. Scrutinizing the effectiveness of tasks associated with the lessons learned. Helpful Tips Here are some tips for implementing an organizational lessons-learned plan: • Maintain patience, even when dealing with lessons without clear "owners" or those that aren't readily shared or applied. Implementing an organizational lessons-learned plan demands persistence. • Don't wait until a project is completed to extract lessons. Conduct reviews as early and as frequently as possible. • Proactively identify and target project management processes that can benefit from lessons learned. • Pay particular attention to the supply chain as a potential area for cost savings. • Take initiative and assume responsibility, even when others hesitate. • Prioritize addressing lessons that hold significant value for the organization. • Emphasize taking action over mere documentation of lessons; ensure effective communication. • Systematically plan for lessons learned based on the Mattel lessons learned program. Summary The methodology detailed in the book pertains to various lesson creation and learning stages. Simultaneously, one can analyze the progression of knowledge through the following phases: Area of Interest: This encompasses a general, potentially problematic topic identified as suitable for lessons learned. Diagnosis: A statement describing something that occurs under specific conditions. Lesson: A potential solution to a problem grounded in observations. Recommendation: A suggestion for corrective action that, when implemented, resolves the problem. Positive Experience: A solution to a problem tested and proven effective. Lesson Learned: Implementing corrective action resulting in improved performance or observed behavioral changes in the field. This knowledge development unfolds in the stages outlined above, starting from initial interest (collection), progressing to diagnosis (analysis), transitioning to lessons learned (sharing), moving on to recommendations, and culminating in lessons (decision on the course of change). Positive experiences evolve concurrently with the lessons.

  • Learning lessons in the US Military- a summary of a meeting with Lieutenant Colonel Paul Reece

    Learning lessons in the US Military- a summary of a meeting with Lieutenant Colonel Paul Reece 1 September 2015 Dr. Moria Levy Previous Article Next Article During this past august, I've had the chance to participate in a fascinating meeting initiated by the head of the Israeli Police Forces' Training and Doctrine Department with US Military representatives in charge of learning lessons in the American Army. The main subjects raised in conversation were: The most critical and substantial factor affecting success is organizational culture. In order to succeed in the lesson learning process, the organizational culture must: Encourage self-criticism. Enable an honest and open debrief. First enabling steps: a change of leadership. Leadership is a MUST for successful learning. AAR is implemented separately, in addition to an investigation (if one is required) and not as part of it. It is possible and recommended for said investigation to be performed afterwards. It should focus on principal issues and no names or details should be used in order to avoid blaming and shrugging off responsibility. DOT MPLF is an acronym which teaches a technique which enables directing regarding the lessons which the organization wishes to learn. In later stages it can also be used as a tool for determining an implementation channel. Hereby is an elaboration: D- Doctrine: updating professional doctrine O- Organization: organizational change T- Training: Instruction M- Materials: Materials & Accessories P- Policy: Policy and Procedures L- Leadership F- Facilities Informing people regarding the lessons learned is performed through commander meetings (especially regarding issues related to leadership, but not exclusively) while using intra-organizational networks. A lesson learning unit includes a sub-unit of 35 (!!) analyst in charge of analyzing patterns and trends identified in the lessons and of generalization processes. Note: Although I was indeed impressed by this large amount of analysts, I was explained that in an organization which includes 400,000 soldiers, this might not be such a large amount. The information is kept on two levels: Raw data- the debrief documents Recommendations- based on trends learned by the analysts. An evaluation is performed in regard to specific lessons, while review the improvement resulting from the change. Illustrating the probability is usually performed by describing anecdotes. There is no methodical evaluation. From right to Left: Mark Shriller, Lieutenant Colonel Jason Weiss, Colonel Paul Reece, Dr. Moria Levy, and Commander Coby Sorerro. It sure was an educational and fertile meeting. I wish to thank the head of the Israeli Police Forces' Training & Doctrine Department for the initiative and for allowing me to participate in this important meeting which may be the beginning of a long term relationship of cooperation. Thank you.

  • Innovation

    Innovation Previous Service Next Serice Innovation leverages an organization's performance and its competitive advantages. ROM leads solutions for the development of innovation at three levels: 1. Tactical innovation - focused Design Thinking processes. 2. Strategic innovation - in-depth analysis processes and leveraging organizational capabilities based on knowledge assets. 3. Digital transformation - in a unique FLY HIGH™ methodology, which combines four growth engines for continuous innovation.

  • The KMGN round tables series continue

    The KMGN round tables series continue Previous Item Next Item The KMGN round tables series continue, with Moria Levy having recently facilitated a session on Digital Transformation and KM. The next round table will focus on Applying Extended Reality to KM and is set to take place on September 21st, 2023. This session will be led by Prof. Eric Tsui. For more details and registration, please visit:

  • There's nothing like experience

    There's nothing like experience 1 May 2016 Previous Article Next Article In celebration of our 200th issue, I wish to share with you two articles I remember vividly. A few years ago, I was working as knowledge manager in a communication organization and found myself facing a new challenge: writing for the company website and being responsible for the website's service area. During this period, the organization opted to apply the 'self service' approach in order to enable the customer to receive service at any time and place without having to wait or depend on a representative. This approach was considered at the time revolutionary and is now implemented by many organizations who "share" the information with the costumer thus enabling him/her independent conduct. This might sound like a simple step, yet it led to dilemmas and challenges regarding the website's Knowledge Management: How does one make the knowledge simply, easily and comfortably accessible for our customers? Should the company website and KM system present the same content? What can we do in order to bridge the gap between the organizational language and the customer's language and terms? The content must obviously be based on the customer's point of view, since the customer does not encounter these service situations on a daily basis. Furthermore, the math in this case is pretty simple: our goal is to promote usability on behalf of the customer by providing a quick and effective solution (since the customer is most probably impatient). This should be done by offering concise information which does not involve stages or complex issues, reflecting the stages the customer will experience in order to coordinate expectations and promoting a sense of capability to easily reach the solution. Otherwise, there is a risk that the customer will abort the page and the loss will be double: the customer will call customer service and she/he will refrain from using the website as a means of service. While searching for a course of action, I stumbled over two articles which helped me formulate my plan for performing this task: "psychology in the field of design" by Ella Entes and "UX in the real world" by Maya Fleischer. Psychology in the field of KM This article discusses the challenge organizations face which essentially a dilemma is regarding the manner in which companies can reach and convey their message to customers. Nowadays, in an age which features many means of communications and forms of media, it is still important to remember our objective as an organization: To be there= to exist, to make our customer community a faithful one. What makes a website one that communicates with its target audience, one that conveys the message the organizations wishes to get through and develops a community of faithful users? The basis for any website is human behavior, psychological responses to situations, information, colors, shapes and messages. Hereby are a few ground rules I derived from the article: Creating trust=providing customers with security, enjoyment and curiosity regarding the future. Creating a recurring pattern= content patterns, the user usually has an easier time dealing with known and familiar content. A recurring use of pictures in order to enhance the concept and message we wish to convey. People's reading pattern= people don't really read, they scan the page. UX in the real world One of the dilemmas, as I mentioned above, was the need to bridge the communicational gap derived from organizational and professional terminology. This article demonstrates how to bridge this gap through User Experience (UX): A product is "conceived" due to a need and an aspiration that this product will indeed answer the final costumer's needs. Yet there is a long road from the initial need to the final product can substantially affect a product's success. As knowledge mangers we are required to present solutions for rising needs. The manner solutions are presented is important and helps simulate the real product. Therefore, our approach to the solutions we suggest should be as serious as the final product. The article presents several advantages of visual presentation: our customer will have an easier time understanding our precise intention (unlike words which can be more freely interpreted); an image similar to the actual product will lead to expectation coordination; we can perform an early usability test; we can locate additional needs or discard redundant elements before we invest time and money in the actual product development; we can converse in a common language with our customer; a customer's enthusiasm towards visual presentation is usually high and leads to his/her connection to product implementation; we (knowledge managers) are perceived as more serious and professional. How true! An intelligent use of these tools can generate a positive UX and can help sell the product. In some cases, the linguistic gap can be bridged-over through visual means thus coordinating expectations and creating a common language. In conclusion, I have no doubt that these articles can be of great service and assist in other dilemmas we face as knowledge managers. When I faced a new challenge, they certainly helped me to focus my approach and preferred course of action, although the road is never ending as is the journey.

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