Tacit Knowledge

Tacit knowledge is existing knowledge which is difficult to define since the person holding it isn't always aware of it or knows how to articulate it. It usually exists on an individual level. This definition includes "Know whats", "Know hows" and "Know whats" as well as mental modules, beliefs and perceptions.

Example: "When I hear than sound, I check the carburetor".

Tacit knowledge is usually the meaningful knowledge which is the base for the workers' expertise and intelligence. The way to share it vary from mentoring and tutoring (not explaining the knowledge, rather demonstrating it), through connecting between knowledge holders (the knowledge holder shares the knowledge as a response to a practical question), and orderly imparting (turning the knowledge to explicit knowledge).

Tag cloud

A tag cloud is a visual presentation of a collection of tags in a site or sub-area (i.e. search results). The cloud includes different sizes of the tags, regarding their importance, and as result users can locate the relevant information easily. Usually, when using a website, every tag in the cloud serves as a link to content/item associated to the specific tag. The tag cloud has become in recent years one of the most commonly used and leading tools in the world of Web 2.0.


The term 'taxonomy' refers to the organization's glossary; the professional and organizational jargon. It is usually composed from the combination of two glossaries: one describes the professional aspect of the organization (such as the world of software, the world of medicine, the world of cellular phones); the other describes the world of organizational terms (unit names, context and link to a parent organization, etc). Usually the first world of terms repeats itself in different organizations which perform similar activities, while the other is unique to the organization.

Taxonomy is used (while building ontology) for creating properties and values and enables:

  1. Uniform language between different entities in the organization.
  2. Planning orientation in knowledgebases and databases.
Term: Cognitive Search

Have you ever searched for certain information and didn't know where to start?

You assume it will appear in several places, in several platforms and multiple forms. Now, imagine you have a small chip running around, searching for said information in all locations, then presenting you with the most relevant results. Sounds dreamy, right?

Well, dream just a little bit longer- because it's nearly a reality.


Cognitive Search is a search engine technology which is AI based, emulating human thinking processes and thus improving search results.

A Cognitive Search differs from previously available search technologies as it incorporates enhanced AI capabilities, mainly Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Deep Machine Learning. These allow the system to optimally detect the highest result possible.

This is because typical search calculation yield many answers. A closed network may contain hundreds, possibly tens of thousands of results. It requires representing and evaluating each of these results. Optimization enables the machine to recognize the calculation with the highest result based on the information it processes, which in turn provides the recommended search result (Wired, 2017).


A fine example of a Cognitive Search engine is Azure Cognitive Search operated by Microsoft. It uses a template referred to as a reverse index to enable very fast searches through entire texts. A reverse index is compiled of the unique words which appear in each document, and the list of documents in which each word appears. Azure Cognitive Search's indexing process includes dividing the content of each document into separate words, creating a sorted list of all unique terms, then listing which document contains each word.


Google search is another example of a Cognitive Search. The Google search contains a processing feature based not only on local variables but also on users' search patterns. This, in turn, enables more precise search results based on location and previous searches. Put simply, the machine 'learns to know' the users and their search history and subsequently presenting them with the search results most respectively relevant to them.




  • Produces data of higher value than most complex and diverse databases. Uses all available organizational data, both internal and external, regardless of whether they are structured or not, and provides users with deeper insight so to enable them to make better business decisions. Cognitive Search allows this connection to provide comprehensive insights.
  • Provides relevant, context-dependent information. Finding relevant knowledge throughout all available organizational data requires cognitive systems which utilize NLP and can present unstructured data found in texts (documents, email, social media blogs, engineering reports, market studies, etc.) and rich media content (videos, recordings, etc.). Algorithms allow to perfect insights received from the data. Dictionaries and ontologies assist with the synonyms and links between the terms and concepts.
  • Improves constantly via use and incorporation of algorithms, which provides value added.




  • Marketers can use algorithm-based classification to allow prediction of whether customers react to a commercial campaign by analyzing the way they reacted to similar previous campaigns.
  • When we don't necessarily need to run a search query on the entire index, it is better to work with clusters. The idea is to limit the search to specific document groups, represented by 'clusters'. A cluster can also be used for analysis purposes. For example, marketing professionals can use different groups of their potential customer database and use these insights to develop focused marketing campaigns.
  • Regression- algorithms which predict numeral sequential values from data by learning the connections between input and output variables. For example, a financial professional would use regression to predict stock prices based on factors such as financial growth, trends or demographics. Regression can be used for creating apps which predict the traffic flow conditions according to weather.
  • Recommendations- another typical application involves multiple basic algorithms to create a recommendation engine which suggests users content that may interest them. "content-based recommendations" offer users personalized recommendations by matching their interests to the documents properties and descriptions. This is a common internet website feature. a well-known example would be Netflix, which recommends users content, based on an analysis of their previous picks.


In conclusion, thanks to technological advancement, Cognitive Searches usher in a new generation of search, enabling organizations to exceed the traditional search box and providing users with instant, relevant data in relevant context.











The difference between Content Management and Document Management

Many of us tend to view document management and content management as synonymous terms. Yet these are two different terms referring to two different fields, which admittedly have much in common. We will hereby list a number of differences between content management and document management: documents are defined information stored in a file. Content, on the other hand, includes every item that can be stored electronically including knowledge segments saved directly in the content database without a document envelope; also including information from ERP systems from databases, files, applications, web pages, graphics, software code, supply lists, etc.

  • A segment or full document- in document management, we keep the document in their entirety, saving all content. In content management, on the other hand, it is possible to save a single segment from an entire document or a number of segments retrieved from different sources, edited together.
  • Document management, alike content management, includes aspects of capturing, organizing, saving and distributing information. Nevertheless, efficient content management must include aspects of real time information and updating.
  • Content management allocates a great deal to the authorization process the content manager performs. In document management, there is a process which includes reviewing versions, but the two are unrelated.
  • In content management, categorization is used mainly for the subject of authorization: let's say two people request to see "news" items. Both will view the same new items window, while each viewer's selection will be filtered according to the category which interests each one. Document management includes an aspect of document properties (profile), yet this is usually used for the user's initiated search.

There are tools which specialize in document management while others are more useful for content management. Before purchasing a certain product, the organization should analyze the main need and according to this prefer the suitable product family.



The KM Portal solution

The term 'portal' literally means an entrance, a gate. The organizational portal is the 'gate' to the organization.

The portal is the gate through which we wish the users to pass through the applications and documents. The organizational portal serves as an entrance gate to the organization workers and one of its main purposes is Knowledge Managements:

The portal enables us to link information, knowledge and data in combined screens.

A good portal is one which links data, information and knowledge together in order to promote an organizational target. When the portal mainly supports the promotion of intra-organizational communication and organizational transparency, as well as the relationship between the organization and the worker regardless of the worker's position- we refer to the portal as a transverse portal since it serves all groups in the organization equally. This type of portal usually includes access to support centers, news on events in the company, welfare services and human resources.

When the portal supports the current work processes, the relationship between the organization and the individual worker as a specific functionary (salesperson, programmer, etc) the portal is referred to as "job related".

The long tail principle

The 'long-tail principle' is a term from the world of statistics which describes a specific form of distribution. Chris Anderson coined the term in business and financial context in an article published in October of 2004. He there claimed that products sold individually in small amounts can serve collectively as a substantial unified force. In other words, products with low demand and small sales volume can be united into a market share that can compete and even surpass best-selling products if the distribution channel is large enough.

The robots are taking over our jobs (and it's not half bad)

Every once in a while, someone publishes an article warning us from a drastic change in our workplaces that will replace us human workers with robots. Science fiction dystopias show us how bad this might turn out.

Yet if we snap back to the reality of 2019, it seems to be that various automation processes have been applied to replace human labor. when applied to processes, this phenomenon is referred to as Robotic Process Automation (RPA)- a software that turns repetitive work processes to automatic processes.   

Raphael is a sales coordinator at a hi-tech company. Every time he gets called via the company website, he must complete the following tasks:

Check whether the caller is registered in the CRM system. if not, register them as a new/potential customer and record the call.

Transfer the call to the relevant party in the organization according to product, geographical location and type of call.

Define a task for said party- customer handling (using the task managing tool).

In case of potential customer, the sales manager must complete the following:

Send an initial e-mail to the customer with the appropriate pamphlet (retrieved from the document library) inviting them to make a phone call (scheduled after checking customer's availability by reviewing their calendar).

Document their status in the task managing system.

Update the weekly report sent to their manager.

These actions require working with several systems and transferring data from one system to the other. As such they consume much valuable time. Raphael feels his potential is being wasted and in turn his motivation decreases. Subsequently, the sales manager might send the wrong pamphlet.

This is where robotic automation comes into the picture. You feed the scenario into the management interface and the robot knows how to interface with the different systems and perform the actions on its own. The interface is user friendly, and whoever defines the tasks doesn't need to know how to program- which means no more depending on development personnel. In some cases, the robot can even identify the actions performed in the user interface and define the action itself so that the sales manager will waste less time operating the operational systems and dedicate more time to the customers. Raphael can utilize his skills for more advanced and fulfilling tasks, rather than burnout due to repetitive, menial work.

One robot can perform several tasks simultaneously. Robots don't have workers rights and can work 24X7, enabling maximal availability to customers.

The next step will be a robot that follows orders, learns the work routines and suggests other processes that can be automated. The data collected by the robot can contribute to the development of the business such as identifying growing markets or organizational data flow weak spots.


In conclusion, robots are not replacing workers. They are merely providing them with more time to develop and evolve, thus advancing themselves and the organization. The cost of an RPA solution is worth saving the hours that workers waste on repetitive, structured processes.

Knowledge workers are the big winners from working with robots. Thanks to the robots, they can invest more time in creative thinking and developing their own knowledge and information as well as the organization's data. Everyone wins.


Tips for communicating the launch of a Knowledge Management system

We are all familiar with the sense of satisfaction derived from launching an organizational Knowledge Management system. After many months of meticulous charting and editing, developing designated applications and stringent quality control, it's finally arrived: launching time. Many organizations set up festive launching events, invest thought and money in branded souvenirs and marketing/advertisement accessories that may catch the eye and hopefully encourage customers to use the system. Occasionally, the large investment leads to an unfortunate loss of focused, effective communication. This communication can help users understand the advantages this system offers them and leave a mark that will outlive the effect of any launch video, as impressive as it might be.

This article will present some tips for optimally communicating a new KM application.

Tips regarding the KM application:

  1. Focusing on the central scenario usages: the new system surely includes many properties. However, when communicating the new system, it is important to focus on the functions and properties that will provide the highest added value for users. These can be emphasized via marketing aids (user manuals, pagelets, etc.) before and during the implementation process. For more about the Winner application, click here:


Note: although it is tempting to display the entire palette of your system's abilities, focus on a limited package of properties and market them so that users do not experience a sense of overload and lack of focus.

  1. Presenting the competitive edge: know what is your system's unique advantage that you wish to implement and present it to users. This advantage is what distinguishes you from the alternative systems. Choosing to shift to your systems means altering users' work habits and routines. To encourage this change, you must convey to users what they gain from using this system. Do not rely on users discovering the system's advantages on their own; encourage them to try it out and refer them to its advantages and benefits.
  2. Adjusting expectations: most systems are based on needs. Workers' needs, management's needs, etc. When implementing a system, it is important to generate realistic expectations regarding the system's ability and objectives which it must display- no system, as amazing as it might be, can solve all challenges workers or management are currently facing. This is simply impossible. It is therefore better to avoid making promises you might not be able to keep. For example, a system that will answer all questions a worker might face is a matter of fantasy and it is irresponsible to suggest that your system fulfills it. Systems are usually launched gradually; the first stage does not include all required information. Unadjusted expectations can lead to dissatisfaction on behalf of the users, which in turn may lead to users being disappointed from the system's content and will not give it another chance.
  3. Phrasing a communication message: phrase a communication message that is as focused and specific as possible; generally phrased messages might make users feel that the system isn't designed for them. Incorporate functional information, screenshots and access to the content area and/or links to specific pages.
  4. Despite the great temptation to phrase your communication title as a question ("do you want to save hundreds of dollars?") motivating action, we must remember that this is a serious business organization; your system was designed to answer business needs. Enhance your users' sense of confidence in the system's relevance. Describe the benefits of using this system and direct them to use the system optimally.
  5. Content: every amateur journalist knows that a business notice must include the five W's: what, why, who, when and where. When the notice includes answers to all these questions, the readers receive all the information they need: what it is, when and where is it going to take place and finally, whether and why is might it be relevant to them. Remember to address these questions when communicating.

Tips regarding the implementation process

  1. Adapt the implementation process to users' operation patterns, so that you attain optimal exposure. The objective is to communicate the information when the worker is available and free to listen to these sort of issues (mornings before work commences or during the afternoon when the load decreases. Communicating during these hours allows users to actively participate in implementation undistracted).
  2. Another way to go is using existing organizational systems as implementation tools. The communication method depends on your creativity and (obviously) the resources at the dispense of your organization. You can, however, use the organization's existing websites as a launching platform for your new system. For example, you can use the organizational portal's frequently-viewed pages as a tool for communicating the entire new system or designated applications. It is preferable to communicate this information on the most frequently viewed pages, pages that we know users view, such as a page that displays search results or a page that displays welfare suggestions, etc.
  3. Encourage feedback: create a comprehensible and comfortable feature through which users can respond to the implementation process and the new system. This is the quickest and cheapest way to find out what the field thinks and improve the system. It is important to address every comment with full respect and make the user that sent it feel that their opinion is significant. While it is totally legitimate not to accept all offers, do not dismiss other opinions that may arise.
  4. To improve the implementation and learn from it, remain attentive to any voice heard from the field and review whether the implementation process is producing the results you expected. If necessary, change and adjust the process to current settings.
  5. Take a deep breath: optimal implementation takes time and improves as time goes by. Consider that implementation goals will not be immediately reached; try starting with generating a sense of something meaningful happening by raising awareness to the new system.

You've invested so much in setting up and implementing this system; however, this is really just the beginning. Keep on developing the system according to the needs the field raises, study the technological innovations and leading trends in today's market, thus improving the solutions you offer users.


We have grown familiar with the term 'Wiki'. It describes sharing software which allow anyone to edit content on the internet and publish it. This tool is making the internet a platform which includes an unlimited amount of content on countless subjects and on different levels of depth and complexity.


What is T-Wiki?

The term T-Wiki refers to software which serves as a platform for a number of Wiki platforms together, in a simple manner without any complex programming. It enables combining screens and connecting API that links to databases, creating and sorting tables, creating diagrams etc. In this manner, the T-Wiki enables to structure an envelope for the site which includes several Wikis, all in a modern look with a sense of innovation. It has a comfortable interface, high repair control and the availability of controlled access lists which makes it very user friendly, comfortable format especially suitable for those interested in sharing information and lack the required technological knowledge.

For example: a T-Wiki on traffic- The Mandriva community.



The characterization of a User Interface enfolds a world of details, from the structure and functionality level to the really small details. Typography is defined (according to Wikipedia) as "Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language readable and appealing. The arrangement of type involves selecting typefaces, point size, line length, line-spacing (leading), letter-spacing (tracking), and adjusting the space within letters pairs (kerning)."

In the world of Web 2.0, in which an alternative for every source of information can be found, the website's visibility can become the determining factor between Use and No Use. Therefore, allow me to point out some emphases for designing correct typography for a User Interface:


*Relevant CSS code segments can be found in the article's references.