The term 'rating' originally refers to an evaluation of the percentage of viewers viewing a certain television show and ranking the television shows in a descending order.

Nowadays, in the ago of internet, 'rating' is used to refer to the way in which search engines rate internet pages and websites. The rating results will affect the order in which the websites and pages are displayed in search results.


How is it done (that's actually a good question…)

Every website owner is interested in their site to appear first, second or to at least appear on the first page of a Google search containing a word/subject related to the product/service they offer.

Many consulting companies offer to promote the website's search results potential in order to improve the website's traffic.

Search engines rate the pages they find according to an assessment of their expected relevance to the users' queries by combining query-based questions and independent queries while analyzing and assessing this page's assumed importance.

Hereby are some well-known algorithms that relate to analyzing independent queries:

  • The HITS (Hyperlink-Induced Top Search) algorithm, Created by John Kleinberg in 1997 to rate internet websites, is an algorithm examines two properties of each page: "authority" which evaluates the links to the page and "hub" which evaluates the links from the page to other pages. Thus, the algorithm attempts to evaluate the page's importance. If the links come from website homepages such as Yahoo!, Google or MSN (which are highly important websites), then the page will be rated highly.
  • PageRank is an algorithm that serves the Google search to rate websites found in their search engine's results. PageRank, named after Google founder Larry Page, is a method that evaluates the website pages importance. According to Google, " PageRank relies on the uniquely democratic nature of the Web by using its vast link structure as an indicator of an individual page’s value. In essence, Google interprets a link from page A to page B as a vote, by page A, for page B. But, Google looks at more than the sheer volume of votes, or links a page receives; it also analyzes the page that casts the vote. Votes cast by pages that are themselves "important" weigh more heavily and help to make other pages "important." 
  • TrustRank is a technique developed by scientists Zoltan and Gyeonggi, designed to allow search engines to fight spam and pages that manipulated their way to a higher ranking. Human editors scan some of the pages to identify spam websites. Since they no one can scan all internet pages and rely exclusively on this method, TrustRank considers a website credible based on its relation to credible websites.


In conclusion, there are many methods for rating websites for search engines. Methods are developed according to changes in the web itself.

Nowadays, some companies rate internet websites according to various criteria (for example: Alexa, SimilarWeb, etc.) by geographical segments, areas, etc. Below is a list of common websites in Israel (as of 1/17/18) according to SimilarWeb.












Response/Stimuli Matrix

A response/stimuli matrix is a Knowledge Management module which documents which places use the most memory and knowledge. The matrix, as it has been used in various organizations, shows that memory is the most suitable means for planned response for foreseen stimuli. Knowledge, on the other hand, is the means for unplanned responses to unexpected stimuli.


According to mobile designer Josh Clark, content is like water. The same content can be poured into a variety of "vessels". We therefore must stop focusing on constructing different vessels and instead construct our content in a responsive manner so that it fits all vessels.

What exactly is responsive design? This school of website design promotes the creation of a graphic interface that automatically adapts to the screen size (of the computer, tablet, or cellphone) while retaining the website's full form and a continuous User Experience.


Responsive design is based on three principles:

  1. A flexible grid structure- dividing the screen into a net of differently-sized segments enables using relative sizes for columniation of different components; for example, defining the width of a certain component according to the percentage of page size it takes up (rather than by its number of pixels). Thus, when the screen is narrower (e.g. when using a cellphone rather than a Personal Computer), the height of a component changes accordingly. It also enables a changing definition of the web components' location for different screen sizes (e.g. displaying two items across the screen rather than three).
  2. Flexible pictures- pictures, too, require defining a relative size both regarding the page and regarding the component in which they are placed to ensure that they don't exceeds the components' borders.
  3. Using the media queries module- a CSS3 tool which translates the content so that it fits the screen resolution.

Some websites offer more advanced elements: rotating the picture according to the screen, changing the font color according to the background color, shifting from a multi-columned template to a single-columned template, hiding illustrations that aren't vital. A review of successfully responsive websites can be found in Jesse Kirkwood's blog on "Inside Design".


The responsive versions of the Dropbox website


If you are interested in reading some more technical tips, you can read this review published on Google's developers' website or sign up to a free course on the subject on Udacity.

What began as an innovative idea eight years ago, has recently become nearly a norm. I write "nearly" since there are still commercial and public parties that prefer creating, separately from their main website, a mobile-adapted website. This is a more limited version which displays the content from the "main website" adapted to the users' needs and call to action. The differences between a responsive website to a mobile-adapted website are reviewed in this article. However, this issue if a matter of time and in a few years all websites will be responsive; we might not have to name the phenomenon since it would be the only standard.




Responsive web design, Wikipedia; retrieved on 20/02/18 
Seven Deadly Mobile Myths: Josh Clark Debunks the Desktop Paradigm and More, Forbes, May 3, 2012; retrieved on 20/02/18
11 powerful examples of responsive web design, Inside Design, February 26, 2018; retrieved on 20/02/18
אתר רספונסיבי או אתר מותאם תוכן למובייל? הדילמה ומה שביניהם..., ירחון 2know, יוני 2017; אוחזר ב - 20/02/18


Retiree knowledge retention


Retiree expert knowledge retention is an important need in many organizations. It deals with retaining the most critical knowledge enabling organizations to minimize potential damage driven by their retirement.
Knowledge retention is not a straight forward task, as the knowledge the expert holds is endless.

Hereby is a 4-staged methodology, supporting the process:
Stage 0- selecting experts:
Deciding which experts should be included in such a plan of knowledge retention. Theoretically, this process can be preformed for any quitting/retiring worker yet due to limited resources it is preferable to focus on workers who have developed organizational expertise which others lack.
- Identifying retirees can be executed with the assistance of HR systems.
- The retention process should be initiated four to six month prior to the retirement (and not later). Exceeding organizations will retain this type of knowledge years before retirement is even brought up (thus transforming the project from retiree knowledge retention to expert knowledge retention).
- Sometimes workers nearing retirement become very tense when approached in order to document their knowledge since they then realize the reality of actually leaving the workplace. These difficulties and sensitivities should be considered.

Stage 1- mapping and prioritizing subjects to be retained:
Includes charting main issues the expert deals with. Prioritizing subjects which involve more valuable knowledge that should indeed retained.
- Consider whether the organization will need this knowledge in the future (i.e. is it not outdated?)
- Consider if there is an alternative source for the knowledge (which can be easily acquired)

Stage 2- retaining the knowledge:
Documenting the knowledge and information.
- In case some documents preexist, they should be charted and placed together, with each document paired with an explanation regarding the importance of said document and instructions when/how to make use of it.
- Orally transmitted knowledge should usually be documented using fixed templates.
- The amount of time invested in the process should be decided a priori and it should be managed according to a structured work plan in order to ensure progress both through meetings and producing products and reaching predefined targets.
- If at lost for another method, try covering all contacts related to the subject, insights, processing unique and unobvious processed and referencing central documents. If said expert has a replacement, he/she should be involved in the documented process in order for this transfer of power to work out; the retiree can review the replacement's notes and comment (either approving or disapproving).

Stage 3- merging the knowledge into the organizational environment:
Includes making the knowledge accessible in the organizational work environment. This stage is seemingly redundant, since the knowledge has already been documented in previous stages yet is the most important stage of the entire process. If the documented knowledge is not linked to the computerized environment in which the worker operates and can be accessed easily, the workers yet to retire will never access the data and knowledge and the investment, regardless of its importance, will go down the drain.


Returning hyperlink

A returning hyperlink is a simple mechanism which enables creating a "returning hyperlink" from a page on a different website to a page on your website. If you've created a link to a different website which has a "follow me" feature, a message is sent to the website addressed in the hyperlink. As a response, a link back to your website is created automatically. In short, it allows creating a two-way hyperlink between two websites.

The technology behind this application can be easily applied if you have an internet/interant website. There are unique websites that use this interesting application extensively. Every time someone creates a weblog or a new page on the website on a given subject, a central indexing website receives a notification of the new information. Thus, a chronological list of articles published on a certain subject is created.

KMPings is a good example for this type of website. For example, every time someone publishes anything on Knowledge Management, he/she clicks on a button which informs the website of the new added information. As a response, a link is created in the central indexing website to the article's location. This website is a central indexing website which has become an information portal on Knowledge Management. The website contains 200 hyperlinks sent by KM weblog writers.

Reuse vs. New-Use

One of Knowledge Management's main objectives is using the knowledge and information concealed in worker's heads and supporting systems, thus saving the time and effort that would have been invested in reinventing the wheel. The organization aspires to attain an orderly work method retrieve documents, templates, presentations and other types of data which are the result of many hours of work. The term commonly used to describe multiple uses of existing information was "reuse", yet the more precise and appropriate term is New-use. Most workers use documents and existing information as an infrastructure for new knowledge and information while the need for this piece of data is usually similar to the needs which originally lead to the collection of this data or the writing of the original document. Yet, although both needs are similar- they are not identical. In these cases, the document has been newly used and not merely reused.